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to hold him on the Bistritz until the Prussian flank attacks could be developed. A few short words passed3 from the commander of the First Army to the chief of his staff; a few aides-de-camp, mounting silently, rode quietly away; and, as it were by the utterance of a magician's spell, one hundred thousand Prussian warriors springing into sight, as if from the bowels of the armed earth, swept over the southern edges of the Milowitz ravine towards the hill of Dub.-H. M. HOZIER, The Seven Weeks' War.

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XXX.

A DISPUTED BOUNDARY.

A peculiar 10 interest attaches itself at the present time everything which throws light upon the debated question of 12 the boundary between the two kingdoms; 13 a question which is not less keenly debated 14 among naturalists than that of many a disputed frontier has been between adjacent nations.

1 To hold, here festhalten or be schäftigen. Bistritz is in German feminine, most names of rivers belonging to the feminine gender. 2 Flank attacks, Flankenangriffe; to develop, entfalten.

3 Passed, transl. wurden...an... gerichtet; chief of his staff, Chef seines Generalstabs.

Mounting, bestiegen... ihre Pferde. 5 As-spell, wie auf den Ausspruch eines Zauberwortes; after which clause ought to be placed the words springing into sight, to be turned by appeared suddenly.'

6 As-bowels, gleichsam aus dem Schoße.

7 Transl. swept by strömten, connecting it with the preceding clause by means of the conjunction 'and.' 8 Edge, here Abbang; towardsDul, dem Dubhügel zu.

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For many parts of this border-country1 have been taken and retaken several times; their inhabitants, so to speak,2 having3 first been considered on account of their general1 appearance to belong to the vegetable kingdom; then 'in consequence of some movements being observed in them being claimed by the zoologists; then, on the ground of their evidently plant-like mode of growth, being transferred back to the botanical side; then, owing to the supposed 10 detection of some new feature in their structure oril physiology, being again claimed as members of the animal kingdom; and lastly,12 on the discovery of a fallacy in these arguments, being once more turned over 13 to the botanist, with 14 whom for the most part they remain. For the attention which has been given 15 of late years to the study of the humblest 16 forms of vegetation has led to the knowledge among 17 what must be '

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Border-country, Grenzland; transl. here taken by erobert, and retaken by zurückerobert. See page 89, note 8.

2 Turn here speak 'say.' 3 Compare Int. p. xvi., c. The frequent occurrence of the present participle in the above extract will afford the student an excellent opportunity for practice in the construction so commonly occurring in English, and so very rarely in German.

4 Render general by im Allgemeinen, to be placed after the term appearance (Aussehen).

5. Tobelong to the, als zum...gehörig; vegetable kingdom, Pflanzenreich.

6 To observe in, wahrnehmen an. Turn being observed by ' which one

observed.

7 The present participle being, referring to claimed (reclamirt), should be turned by a finite verb, viz. wurden sie, and inserted after then.

8 The term like, joined to another expression and employed in its compound form as an attributive adjective, is frequently rendered by mäßig or artig. The latter expression added to the plural of plant

un

ought to be used here. Mode of growth, Wachsthum.

9 To transfer back, zurückbringen. The present participle being may be omitted in the translation, both in this clause and the next.

10 Owing-supposed, in Folge der vermeintlichen; feature, Umstand, i.e. circumstance.

11 The possessive pronoun must here be repeated on account of the difference of the gender of the nouns structure, Bau; and physiology, Physiologie.

12 Lastly, schließlich. The following present part. (being) should here be inserted according to note 7, above. On, bei; fallacy, Trugschluß. 13 To turn over, überliefern.

14 Translate with by the preposition bei, and for the most part by größtentheils.

15 Render has been given by man ...fchenkte, and of late by in legteren. 16 Humblest, here untersten. The expression forms of vegetation may be translated by the compound term Pflanzenformen, i.e. forms of plants.'

17 For the rendering of the whole clause from has to phenomena see next page, note 1.

doubtedly' regarded as plants of so many phenomena1 which would formerly have been considered 2 unquestionable marks3 of animality, that the discovery of the like phenomena among the doubtful beings in question, 5 so far from being evidence of THEIR animality, really affords a probability of the opposite kind.-Dr. W. B. CARPENTER, The Microscope and its Revelations.

XXXI.

THOMAS CARLYLE TO GOETHE.*

Craigenputtoch, Sept. 25, 1828.

You inquire with such warm interest9 respecting our present abode and occupations that I am obliged to say a few words 10 about both while there is still room left.11

1 Translate the clause has-phenomena by hat bei dem was unzweifel haft als Pflanze angesehen werden muß, zur Erkenntniß so vieler Phänomene geführt.

2 See page 85, note 2.

3 Mark, here Merkmal; animality, Animalismus.

Of-among, transl. ganz ähnlicher Phänomene bei.

Translate in question by betreffend, placing it as an attributive adjective before doubtful; so far from, weit entfernt.

6 Being evidence, zu beweisen. The word animality being used after this verb in the accusative case, the preposition of must, as a matter

of course, be omitted in the translation.

7 Affords, here barthut; of—kind, des Gegentheils. Compare with the above passage, Ext. 27.

8 To inquire... respecting, for. schen...nach.

9 Interest, here Theilnahme; occupation, Beschäftigung, to be used here in the singular only.

10 When the expression words denotes 'single, unconnected terms,' it is translated by Wörter, and when it stands for connected terms, having a coherent meaning,' as is the case here, by Worte.

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11 While-left, da noch Raum dazu übrig bleibt.

*Goethe took such a lively interest in Carlyle, on account of his being one of the first to make his British countrymen acquainted with modern German literature, that the veteran poet wrote a preface to the German edition of his "Life of Schiller," inserting at the same time a translation-of which some use has been made in the notes-of the above letter, chiefly, as it would seem, in explanation of a woodcut, representing the writer's secluded residence in Scotland, which was added to the German edition.

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Dumfries is a pleasant town, containing about 15,000 inhabitants, and is to be considered2 the centre of the trade and judicial system of a district which possesses some importance in the sphere of Scottish activity. Our residence is not in the town itself, but fifteen miles to the north-west,6 among the granite hills and the black morasses which stretch westward through Galloway almost to the Irish Sea. In this wilderness of heath and rock our estates stands forth a green oasis, a tract of9 ploughed, partly enclosed, 10 and planted11 ground, where corn ripens and trees afford a shade, although surrounded by sea-mews and rough- woolled 13 sheep. Here, with no small 14 effort, have we 15 built and furnished 16 a neat, substantial dwelling; here,17 in the absence of

1 This present participle might here be rendered according to rule b, Int. page xvi.

2 To consider, here ansehen, to be followed by als, as is the case with betrachten, to consider, and darstellen, to represent, when used in the signification pointed out page 36, note 4. These verbs require the accusative; but this case is changed into the nominative in passive constructions and after the supine. See page 45, note 20.

3 Judicial system, Gerichtsbarkeit. 4 Activity, here Betriebsamkeit. 5 When the expression residence refers to the private dwelling of an individual, it is rendered by Wohnort, Wohnsiz, or Wohnung; but when signifying the capital of a ruling sovereign, it is in German Residenz or Residenzstadt.

6 North-west, nordwestlich, which is to be followed by davon entfernt, as an equivalent for the words to the. Granite hills forms in German a compound expression.

7 To stretch, here sich ziehen. 8 Render here estate by Besißthum, and stands forth by bildet.

9 Tract of... ground, Strede... Landes, stands here in apposition to oasis, and should, therefore, be used

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in the accusative, in accordance with the rule that the apposition always agrees with the term which it qualifies in number and case: the apposition agrees also in gender when the qualifying expression is the name of a person, the gender of which is distinctly marked.

10 Enclosed, here umzäunt, compounded from the noun 3aun, hedge, and the preposition um, round.

11 Use here the past participle of bebauen as an attributive adjective.

12 To afford, gewähren, forms here with Schatten a kind of compound verbal expression, thus making the indefinite article superfluous.

13 Rough-woolled, hartwollig. 14 The epithet small, referring to effort, is to be rendered by gering.

15 It is an idiomatic peculiarity of the German language to point out distinctly the subject to the advantage of which an action has been done, by means of the dative of the personal pronoun. Supply here, therefore, the dative uns.

16 To furnish (a house, &c.), einrichten. The expression substantial may here be rendered by dauerhaft, or still better by solid.

17 The words we live are to be inserted here.

professional or other office, we live to cultivate2 literature according to our strength, and in our peculiar way. We wish a joyful growth to the rose and flowers of our garden; we hope for health and peaceful thoughts5 to further our aims. The roses, indeed, are still in part to be planted, but they blossom already in anticipation.

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Two ponies, which carry us everywhere, and the mountain air,10 are the best medicines 11 for weak 12 nerves. This daily exercise, to which I am much devoted,13 is my only recreation; for this nook of ours is the loneliest in Britain-six miles removed from any one likely to visit me.14** *

I came hither solely with the design 15 to simplify my way of life,16 and to secure the independence through which I could be enabled 17 to remain true to myself. This bit 18 of earth is our own: here we can live, write, and think,

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2 To cultivate (a science, &c.), sich befleißigen, or sich befleißen, which belongs to that class of reflective verbs which govern the genitive of the thing, having the reflective pronoun in the accusative.

3 According to our, transl. nach eigenen, and use in German the plural of Kraft for strength.

4 Joyful growth, fröhliches Gedeihen.

5 Peaceful thoughts, friedliche Gemüthsstimmung; aim, Streben, to be used in the singular only.

6 Still in part, zum Theil noch. 7 Turn anticipation by hope.' 8 Goethe renders ponies by leichte Pferde, but we use now the word Ponies also in German.

9 The primary sense of to carry is in German simply tragen: here, however, we ought also to express the

direction of the action. Add therefore the pronominal adverb hin.

10 The words mountain air form in German a compound term.

11 Medicine, Arznei. We use in German also the word Arzt, physician, figuratively in the sense in which medicine is employed here.

12 Translate here weak by zart, and exercise by Bewegung. 13 Devoted, here ergeben; recreation, 3erstreuung.

14 Removed me, von einer jeden Person entfernt, die mich allenfalls besuchen möchte.

15 With the design, zu dem Zwecke.

16 Way of life, Lebensweise. Translate here to secure by erwerben, and the by the demonstrative pronoun jene.

17 The clause through-enabled might be rendered with literal fidelity by durch die ich in den Stand gesezt werden könnte, or, far more briefly, die es mir möglich machte. True, in the above sense, treu.

18 Bit, here Stüd. The words our own may be simply turned by the possessive pronoun 'ours.'

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