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as best1 pleases ourselves, even though2 Zoilus himself were to be crowned the monarch of literature.

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Nor is the solitude of such great importance ;5 for a stage-coach takes us speedily to Edinburgh, which we loo upon as our British Weimar. And have I not, too, at this moment piled up upon the table of my little library a whole cart-load of French, German, American, and English journals and periodicals - whatever may be their worth. Of antiquarian studies, too, there is no lack.10 From some of our heights I can descry, about a day's journey11 to the west, the hill where Agricola 12 and his Romans left a camp behind them. At the foot of it 13 I was born, and there both father and mother still live to love me.

1 The relative superlative (or superlative of comparison) of adverbs is formed by prefixing am = at the, and adding en to the simple form of the superlative: e.g. He runs quickest of all, er läuft am schnellsten von Allen.

2 Even though, transl. und wenn. Zoilus lived in the time of Philip of Macedon. He was celebrated for his carping criticisms, and his name has become proverbial for a cynical, malignant critic.

3 Were to be, werden sollte. 4 Render here monarch by König, and see page 36, note 4.

5 Of importance, transl. fo bedeutend; takes = brings; to look upon, ansehen.

6 The conjunction and may be omitted in translating the above exclamation, which can be made more expressive in German by

means of the expletive denn, to be inserted between / and not.

7 To pile up, aufhäufen; cartload, Ladung.

8 The preposition of is here to be rendered by von, as is frequently the case with partitive genitives, viz. when an entire number or quantity, from which a part is taken, occurs in the genitive case.

9 Journal, Journal, pronounced as in French; periodical, 3eitschrift.

10 There is no lack, fehlt es nicht. The objective relation of verbs expressing want requires the preposition an with the dative.

11 Form here the compound term 'day's-journey.' To the west = west

ward.

12 The Roman Consul Cn. Julius Agricola was governor of Britain from 78 to 85 A.D.

13 Turn of it by 'of the same.'

ance.

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XXXII.

A STURDY SQUIRE.1

King David was taken prisoner on his homeward 3 retreat, but not without making the most gallant resist When the Queen of England heard that her army had gained the victory, she mounted on her white charger, and went to the battle-field. She was informed on the way that the King of Scots was the prisoner of a squire 10 named John Copeland, who had rode off 11 with him, no one knew whither. The Queen ordered 12 him to be sought out, and told 13 that he had done what was not agreeable to her in carrying off 14 her prisoner without leave. Next 15 day Philippa wrote with her own hand 16

1 A sturdy squire, transl. ein troziger Vafall.

2 The above extract refers to an incident which occurred in 1346, after the battle at Nevil's Cross, which was fought between the brave Philippa of Hainault (Sen negau), Queen of Edward III., and David Bruce, King of Scotland.

3 Homeward, transl. in die Hei math, to be placed after retreat.

4 In participial constructions like the above we frequently depart in German from the rule requiring the supine by translating without by ohne daß, and employing a regular sentence with a finite verb in the conditional mood. The sense of the passage will show which tense is to be used. In the present case the verb to make, here leisten, is to be employed in the perfect conditional.

5 Gallant, here arfer. 6 Compare Ext. 47, note e. 7 Translate charger by Schlachtroß or Streitroß; and use for went the imperfect of sich begeben; to, here auf. 8 Turn She-way by 'on the way was communicated to her.'

9 See page 29, note 3.

10 Render here squire by Edelmann, and turn named by the genitive singular of Name.

11 To ride off, davonreiten. The assertions had rode off and no one knew are included in the indirect quotations.

12 To order, here den Befehl geben, which is a more dignified expression than befehlen. Use the two following verbs in the supine of the active voice.

13 The verb sagen governing the dative of the person, we must supply here the pronoun ihm before told.

14 To carry off, wegführen. Construe 'whilst (intem) he...carried off."

15 The point of time of the predicated action may in German also be expressed by the preposition an with the dative. The definite article should here be used, whether the accusative or an with the dative be employed; but if the preference be given to the latter, the adjective next might be rendered here for euphony's sake by folgend.

16 The phrase with her (his, &c.)

to John Copeland, commanding him to surrender1 the King of Scots to her. John answered in a manner most contumacious to the female Majesty3 then swaying the sceptre of England with so much ability and glory.

He replied to Philippa that he would not give up his royal prisoner to woman or child, but only to his own lord King Edward, for to him he had sworn allegiance,9 and not to any woman.

Philippa wrote immediately to the King her husband,10 relating11 all that had occurred.

When the King had read the Queen's letter, he ordered John Copeland to come to him at Calais, who, having placed 12 his prisoner in a strong 13 castle in Northumberland, set out and landed near 14 Calais. When the King of England saw the squire, he took him by the hand, saying, “Ha! welcome, my squire, 15 who 16 5 To give up to surrender.

own hand is, more briefly than in most other languages, expressed in German by the single term eigen händig, which students of Greek will be able to compare with the compound αὐτόχειρ.

1 To surrender, ausliefern. The verb befehlen always requires the supine, since the verb to which it refers expresses the object of the sentence.

2 The phrase in a manner most contumacious may be turned in German by 'in a most contumacious (trogige) manner,' or rendered briefly and forcibly by the adverbial expression äußerst troßig.

3 The epithet female would, in German, not be applicable here, since it would not be considered, as is the case in English, as forming with the noun majesty one expression, equivalent to Queen,' but merely as an attribute qualifying the noun majesty. We may employ, however, the expression fönigliche Frau as an elegant equivalent for female Majesty.

4 To sway the sceptre, den Zepter führen. See note to Ext. 23, and use the verb in the imperfect.

6 Use the indefinite article before this and the following noun.

7 Translate here lord by Herrn, and connect it with King by the conjunction 'and.'

8 For used as a conjunction-in which case it is synonymous with because'-is rendered by denn, but when occurring as a preposition -corresponding to the French pour-it is generally translated by für. The expletive nur may here be inserted after for.

9 To swear allegiance, den Lehenseid leisten. Turn any by a.'

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10 Render the phrase to-husband by the attributive expression ihrem königlichen Gemahl.

11 Render relating, erzählte, connecting this verb with the preceding olause by the conjunction and.'

12 To place, here unterbringen. Use the pluperfect with the conjunction nachdem.

13 Strong, here fest.

14 Near, transl. unweit or in der Nähe von.

15 Translate here squire as given in page 88, note 1.

16 See page 68, note 10.

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by thy valour hast captured1 mine adversary, the King of Scots!" John Copeland fell2 on one knee, and replied, "If God out of 3 His great kindness has given me the King of Scotland, and permitted 5 me to conquer him in arms, no one ought to be jealous' of it; for God can, if He pleases, send His grace to a poor squire as well9 as to a great lord. Sire, do not take it amiss 10 if I did not surrender King David to the orders 1l of my lady Queen, for I hold my lands 12 of you, and not of her, and my oath is to you,13 and not to her—unless, indeed, through choice." 14

19

King Edward answered, “John, the loyal 15 service you have done16 us and our esteem for your valour is 17 SO great, that it 18 may well serve you as an excuse; and shame fall on 20 those who bear you any ill-will! 21 You will now return home, and take 22 your prisoner, the King of Scotland, and convey him to my wife;23 and by way

1 To capture, gefangen nehmen. 2 Fell, transl. ließ sich...nieder. 3 Turn out of by in;' kindness, here Gnate.

in

arms,

4 Given, transl. überliefert. 5 To permit, gestatten; transl. die Waffen in der Hand. 6 See the note to Ext. 7. 7 Jealous requires in German the preposition auf.

8 If He pleases, wenn es ihm so gefällt. The verb send may here be rendered by angedeihen lassen.

9 Place in German the adverbial expression as well before to a poor, &c.; great lord, vornehmer Herr.

16 The usual rendering for to take amiss, viz. übel nehmen, would not be in keeping with the elevated tone of the above speech: transl. the phrase do-if by zürnet mir nicht darob, daß.

11 To the orders, auf Befehl.

12 1-lands, ich trage meine Güter zu Lehen. The pronoun you should be rendered here by the second person plural, which pronoun was used from about the beginning of the thirteenth to about the middle

of the seventeenth century in addressing persons of rank.

13 Is to you, transl. Euch habe ich ...geleistet.

1 Turn unless-choice by 'it be then out of (aus) free choice.'

15 Retain this identical expression also in German.

16 To do (a service), leisten. 17 Use here the plural, since the verb refers to two subjects, viz. service and esteem.

18 Render here it by ties, the abbreviated form of dieses, which is used indefinitely, without regard to the gender or number of the persons or things spoken of.

19 Render as in the above phrase by als, without any article, or by the preposition zu contracted with the definite article.

20 Fall on, transl. treffe.

21 To bear any one ill-will, Jemand übel wollen.

22 Suppress the verb take in the translation, supplying its place by the subsequent verb convey (über liefern).

23 Wife, here Gen ahlin.

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of1 remuneration I assign2 lands as near your house as you can choose them to the amount of £500 a year for you and your heirs.-AGNES STRICKLAND, Lives of the Queens of England.

XXXIII.

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCES.

There is a certain uniformity in the history of most sciences. If we read such works as7 Whewell's "History of the Inductive Sciences" or Humboldt's " Kosmos," we find that the origin, the progress, 10 the causes of failure11 and success, have been the same for almost 12 every branch of human knowledge. There are 13 three marked periods, or stages,14 in the history of every one of them, 15 which we may call the 'empirical,' the 'classificatory,' and the 'theo

1 By way of, say briefly als.

To assign, here anweisen; lands, Ländereien. The clause for-heirs ought to be placed in German after to assign, and for you rendered by the dative.

3 To the amount, zu dem Werthe. 4 Render here is by herrscht, v.e. reigns.

5 Uniformity, Gleichförmigkeit, which must be distinguished from Einförmigkeit; the latter expression indicating monotony,' or 'tedious sameness in all details.'

6 The superlative most requires in German, contrary to the usage in English, the definite article.

7 Render here as by wie.

8 We use also in German the neo-Latin expression inductiv, derived from the verb inducere.

9 See the note to Ext. 7.

10 The article must be repeated in German before all substantives, although they are of the same gender, whenever they are placed side by side in a kind of antitheti

cal order. That it must be repeated here in German before causes is, besides, a matter of course, since it is not used in the same number as the preceding substantives.

11 Translate here failure by Mißlingen, and success by Gelingen. The antithesis would greatly lose in force by rendering the latter expression by Erfolg.

12 Place almost before the preposition for, and the same after knowledge (Wissen).

13 See page 25, note 7. Marked, transl. bestimmt.

14 For the expression stage, denoting a 'degree of progression in any change of state,' we use the Latin word Stadium, from the Greek arádiov, denoting fixedness, firmness, and also a fixed standard of length (about 600 ft.), and figu ratively a race-course. Neuter nouns having the Latin termination ium take in German ien in the plural.

15 Render of them by the genitive plural of terselbe.

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