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retical.'1 However2 humiliating it may sound,3 every one of our sciences, however grand their present titles, can be traced back to the most humble and homely occupations of half-savage tribes.



It was not the true,7 the good, and the beautiful which spurred the early philosophers to deep researches and bold discoveries. The foundation-stone of the most glorious structures of human ingenuity in ages to come 10 supplied by the pressing wants of a patriarchal and semi-barbarous society.


The names of some of the most ancient departments 12 of human knowledge tell their own tale. Geometry, 13 which at present declares itself free 14 from all sensuous impressions, and treats of its points and lines and planes as15 purely

1 The above terms are also used in German; viz. empirical, empirisch, classificatory, classificirend, and theoretical, theoretisch.

2 However, so...auch. The verb may in the preceding sentence is synonymous with can,' whilst here it corresponds to the German mögen.

To sound, flingen. The other usual equivalents of to sound, as sehallen, hallen, tönen, would not be applicable here.

However grand, wie großartig auch; titles names.


The whole of the above sentence might be rendered, almost literally, with grammatical correctness; but we should obtain a far more elegant version by turning it by the trace of all (fämmtlicher) sciences, however grand their present names, can, however humiliating it may sound, be followed back (verfolgt) to the,' &c.

6 When two or more adjectives, placed side by side, occur in the comparative or superlative degree, the respective termination must be added to each of them.

7 Abstract substantives, or such as denote things, formed from adjectives, take in German the

neuter gender. For the construc tion it was... which see page 34 note 13.

To spur (to), anspornen (zu) Turn here early by 'the oldest.'

9 In phrases like the above we use in German the preposition zu with the dative, instead of the preposition of.

10 The clause the-come must be rendered somewhat freely, since the expression in ages to come makes it here necessary to supply in German a verb distinctly expressing the future glorious development of the structures of human ingenuity. Translate therefore, den glorreichsten Gebäuden des menschlichen Geistes, die für alle künftige Zeiten dastehen sollen.


11 To supply, liefern; by, von; want, here Bedürfniß. 12 Department (referring sciences, &c.), Fach; tell their own tale, sprechen für sich selbst, i.e. speak for themselves.

13 Use the definite article.

14 Adjectives referring to the verb erklären (or to halten, annehmen, &c.) must be preceded by the preposition für. Cf. page 36, note 4.

15 The preposition von must here be repeated. Translate purely by

ideal conceptions, not1 to be confounded with the coarse and imperfect representations,2 as they appear on paper to the human eye, geometry, as its very name declares,3 began with measuring a garden or a field. It is derived from the Greek 'ge,' land, ground, earth, and 'metron,' measure. Botany, the science of plants, was originally the science of 'botanē,' which in Greek does not mean a plant in general, but fodder, from 'boskein,' to feed. The science of plants would have been called 'phytology,' from the Greek phyton,' a plant.

The founders of astronomy were not the poet or the philosopher, but the sailor and the farmer.8 The early9 poet may have admired the "mazy10 dance of planets," and the philosopher may have speculated 11 on the heavenly harmonies ;12 but it was to 13 the sailor alone that a knowledge of the glittering guides of 14 heaven became a question of life and death.15 It was he who calculated their risings and settings 16 with the accuracy of a merchant and the shrewdness of an adventurer; and the names that were given to single stars or constellations clearly 17 show that they were invented by the ploughers of the sea and of the land. The moon, for instance, the golden hand 18

rein, and ideal by tdealen. Conception, here Begriff.

1 Cf. the note to Ext. 23, and page 45, note 20. To confound, here verwechseln.

2 Transl. here representations by Figuren, and use the definite article before paper.

3 As-declares, wie der Name schon bezeugt; with measuring a, mit dem Ausmessen eines.

4 It is derived, derselbe stammt her. Retain the Greek terms, given in inverted commas, also in German. 5 In Greek, im Griechischen. 6 To mean, here bedeuten. 7 Founder, here Begründer. 8 Translate here sailor by Seefahrer, and farmer by Landmann. 9 Turn here early by 'old.' 10 Mazy, verschlungen.

11 To speculate, here grübeln (über).

on the

12 The heavenly harmonies are called in German Harmonie der Sphären.

13 Translate here to by für, and place before it the word erst as an equivalent for alone.

14 Render here of by am.

15 Translate a-death briefly by zur Lebensfrage.

16 Their-settings, ihren Auf- und Untergang. When two compound expressions having the same subordinate member are placed side by side, the latter is generally omitted in the first expression, the principal member of which is connected with the second compound term by means of hyphens.

17 Clearly, here deutlich.

18 The word hand, denoting the 'index of a watch,' is rendered by Zeiger or Weiser; the latter ex

dark dial of heaven, was called by them the measurer-the measurer of time; for time was measured by1 nights and moons and winters long before it was reckoned by days and suns and years. - MAX MÜLLER, The Science of Language.



In the midst of the wild upland tract which forms the centre of Germany, between Frankfort and Leipsic, is 2 one spot distinguished from all the surrounding country by its singular and romantic beauty. The unmeaning5 downs rise into bold, rocky hills; the patches of wood sink into unfathomable depths of forest ;7 and from the midst of these towers the cluster of heights,9 on the highest of which10 stands the ancient castle of the Wartburg, or Watchtower, of Eisenach.


pression being more used in higher diction, should be employed in the above metaphor.

1 By, referring to 'measure,' is rendered in German by nach.

2 The verb to be is generally rendered by sich befinden, not only when it refers to the state of health of a person, but also when it denotes 'being in a place.' Compare the French se trouver.

3 Spot, here Stelle. Turn distinguished by which distinguishes itself,' and all by whole.

4 The surrounding country, briefly in German, die...Umgegend. Singular, here eigenthümlich.

5 Unmeaning, unbedeutend; downs, here Hügelland, to be used in the singular only; rise into, transl. geht...über.

6 We say also in German ein Fleckchen Land for a patch of ground;

but in the above clause the literal translation of patch would not be applicable; we must therefore render the expression patches of wood freely by zerstreut liegende Gehölze. To sink into, here sich entfalten zu; turn unfathomable by 'impenetrable.'

7 Depths of forest, Waldesdickicht. Use the singular only.

8 Turn of these by the genitive singular of the pronoun 'the same;' to tower, here emporragen.

9 Turn cluster of heights by the compound term 'mountain-group.'

10 On-which, auf deren höchfter Spite. The above clause offers an illustration of the second instance (compare page 68, note 10) in which we must use the relative pronoun der, die, das, instead of welcher, welche, welches-viz. when the pronoun occurs in the genitive case.

In that castle there lived at the beginning of the thirteenth century one of the most saintly characters1 of the Middle Ages, Elizabeth, Duchess of Thuringia. Her life, which was consumed 2 partly in deeds of unbounded charity to the surrounding poor, partly in patient endurance of oppression and affliction of all kinds," is one of the most instructive records of those times that can be read. It abounds with all the extravagance and superstition which mark9 the lives of so many Roman Catholic saints; but 10 it is also one of the best examples of 11 the character which marks 12 so many of the holy men, and especially of the holy women, of the Roman Catholic Church, and which is still to be seen 13 in the hospitals of foreign countries 14-that devotion, 15 namely, which spends itself 16 in the service and condition of the poor,17 the sick, and the afflicted. There she lived and suffered, and there her memory 18 was long preserved in the grateful recollection 19 of the Thuringian 20 peasants.

1 One-characters, translate eine der frömmsten Persönlichkeiten. For the expression Middle Ages, cf. the note to Ext. 26. Thuringia, Thüringen. 2 Turn which was consumed by which she passed' (dahinbrachte). Why the preference is here given to the active voice will be seen from the note to Ext. 8.

3 In deeds, in der Ausübung.

The attribute surrounding cannot be translated literally in the above clause, which must be rendered by gegen die Armen in der Umgegend; endurance, here Ertragen.

Of-kinds, jeder Art von Unterdrückung und Beträngniß; is forms.


6 Records, translate Schilterung. For times, cf. the note to Ext. 50. 7 Turn that-read by 'which one can read."

8 Turn it abounds with by 'it is full of; extravagance, here Ueber schwenglichkeit, to be used in the plural.

9 To mark, here characterisiren. For lives see Ext. 25, note c.

10 The conjunction but is to be placed after is.

11 Of, here on.

12 The verb to mark may here be rendered by fennzeichnen.

13 Render here the verb to see by finden, and see page 45, note 20.

14 For the expression foreign countries we have in German the convenient single term Ausland, corresponding somewhat to the French l'étranger.

15 Devotion, here Hingebung.

16 Spends itself, sich erschöpft; condition, Lage.

17 For this and the two following adjectives, employed here substantively, use in German the plural; afflicted, Betrübte.

18 Memory, here Andenken. 19 Recollection, Erinnerung. 20 Thuringian, Thüringer. Adjectives formed from the proper names of places frequently take the suffix er, instead of the usual adjective suffix, isch, more particularly if the name consists of more than one syllable.

Up the rugged pathway to that same castle three hundred years afterwards2 there rode at the dead of night a troop of five horsemen, leading behind them3 in custody a man closely muffled in a cavalier's cloak,1 who was brought in silence5 into the court of the fortress, and the gates closed immediately behind him. That man was Luther; those horsemen were the guard sent by the Elector of Saxony to carry him off on his return from Worms, and conceal him in this lonely and secluded spot 10 till the fury of his enemies was11 overpast: and there, in what 12 he called his Patmos, 13 he lived 14 unknown and in disguise 15 for some of the most critical months of his career, and began that great work of his life—which 16 alone would make his name famous to all after ages 17-the translation of the Bible 18 into the German language.


1 Up, hinauf, to be placed after castle; rugged, rauh. Use in the above clause the accusative case, there being indicated direction together with motion, and turn pathway simply by 'way.'

2 Turn afterwards by 'later,' and at-night by 'in the stillness of the night.' The German version will read far more elegantly if the clause up-castle is placed after the word night.

3 Leading behind them, transl. sich führten; closely, dicht.

4 Turn cavalier's cloak by the compound term 'rider-cloak.' The clause closely-cloak qualifies the word man. See Int. p. xiv., I. 5 In silence, stillschweigend. 6 To close, sich schließen. 7 Turn here That by this.' 8 See the note to Ext. 23, and use the pluperfect of the passive voice. To, zu entführen.

9 The above refers to a wellknown incident in the life of Luther, whose personal safety was in danger after his memorable attendance at the Diet of Worms in 1521, before the Emperor Charles V.

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13 Patmos, one of the islands called Sporades, is celebrated as the place where the Apostle John wrote the Apocalypse.

14 The verb to live may here be rendered by the expressive term verleben, which denotes to spend a certain time in living.' The prefix ver (compare the Latin præ, pro, and per), expresses 'a consuming, spending, destroying,' &c.

15 In disguise, veroorgen.

16 Insert here the expletive schon, which gives greater force to the word alone.

17 To-ages, für alle künftigen Zeiten. 18 By means of his unsurpassed version of the Bible Luther became the founder of the glorious NewHigh-German idiom, which has since his times become the general 11 Use here the present condi- literary language of Germany.

10 Spot, here Ort.

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