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This castle, then,1 is remarkable2 as combining3 in itself, more than any other spot, the associations of the old and the new-of the Middle Ages and of the Reformation which destroyed them; and, accordingly, in the popular tradition Luther and St. Elizabeth still hold divided sway.DEAN STANLEY, The Reformation. (A Lecture.)


1 Render here then by also.

2 Supply the adverb dadurch before remarkable, in accordance with the rule that, if the adjective or verb upon which the objective clause or the supine depends be followed by a preposition, the latter is added to the demonstrative adverb ta or dar, as darin, damit, darauf, dazu, &c. These compound adverbs are always placed before cne dependent clause; and if a 'verbal form in ing' occurs in the latter, it must be changed into a regular sentence with a finite verb: e.g. We rely upon your keeping your word, wir verlassen uns darauf, daß Sie Ihr Wort halten werden. The adjective merkwürdig, in the above clause, requires the preposition durch; it must, therefore, be preceded by radurch. The reason of

the rule just pointed out lies in the characteristic feature of the German language, to give all constructions with unequivocal grammatical distinctness, and to employ, as a rule, distinct forins and inflections.

3 Render as combining by 'that it... combines' (verbindet), placing the verb after new.

4 Association, transl. Erinnerung (an); the old, das Alte; the new, das Neue.

5 To destroy, vernichten.

6 In-tradition, transl. bas Reich der Volkssage. We use here in German the accusative case, because the expression hold...sway will, in the above clause, best be translated by the transitive verb beherschen. Translate still by noch immer, and divided by gemeinschaftlich.





Brussels, March 6,1 1843.

I am settled by this time, of course. I am not too much overloaded with occupation ; and besides teaching English,5 I have time to improve myself in German. I ought to consider myself well off, and to be thankful for my good fortunes. I hope I am thankful; and if I could always keep up my spirits, and never feel1o lonely, or long for companionship or friendship, or whatever they call it, I should do 12 very well. *** I am a good deal by myself 13 out of school hours; but that does not signify.14 I now regularly give English lessons 15 to M. Héger and his brother-in-law. They get on with wonderful rapidity,16 especially the first.17 He already begins to speak English


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very decently.1 If you could see and hear the efforts 2 I make to teach them to pronounce like Englishmen, and their unavailing attempts to imitate, you would laugh to all eternity.

The Carnival is just over, and we have entered upon5 the gloom and abstinence of Lent. The first day of Lent we had coffee without milk for breakfast; vinegar and vegetables, with a very little salt fish, for dinner; and bread for supper. The Carnival was nothing but masking and mummery. M. Héger took me and one of the pupils into the town to see the masks. It was animating9 to see the immense crowds and the general gaiety, but the masks were nothing.1 10—MRS. GASKELL, Life of Charlotte Brontë.



It was the opening 11 of the season of 1832 at the Baths of Wildbad.

The evening shadows 12 were beginning to gather over the quiet little German town, and the diligence 13 was expected every minute. Before the door of the principal 14 inn, waiting the arrival of the first visitors of the 15 year, were

1 Very decently, transl. ziemlich geläufig.

2 Compare the note to Ext. 23. 3 To imitate, transl. mir nach zusprechen.


11 Opening, here Anfang. The socalled fashionable' season in large cities, watering-places, &c. is designated in German by the French expression Saison; but when denoting one of the four divisions of the here wir befinden uns year, the term season is rendered by the genuine Teutonic expression Jahreszeit. Comp. page 30, note 13.

4 Turn here to by 'in.' 5 We-upon,

bereits in.

6 Render the by am.

7 Translate for here and in the following clauses by zum.

8 Was--masking, bestand bloß aus Maskeraden. Use mummery in the pl. 9 Animating, anregend; crowds, here Menschenmenge, to be used in the singular only.

10 Were nothing, transl. wellten nicht viel heißen.

12 Form a compound term of evening and shadows; to gather, here sich lagern.

13 See page 43, note 8.
14 Principal = first; to wait, here


15 Turn of the by 'in this.' The clause waiting-year ought to be placed after the expression wives.

assembled the three notable personages1 of Wildbad, accompanied by their wives; the mayor2 representing the inhabitants, the doctor representing the waters, the landlord representing his own establishment. Beyond1 this select circle, grouped snugly about the trim little square in front of the inn, appeared the townspeople in general, mixed here and there with the country people,7 in their quaint German costume, placidly expectant of the diligence: the men in short black jackets, tight black breeches, and three-cornered beaver hats; the women with their long, light 10 hair hanging in one thickly-plaited tail behind them.


Round the outer edge of the assemblage thus formed 11 flying detachments 12 of plump, white-headed children careered 13 in perpetual motion, while mysteriously apart 14 from the rest of the inhabitants the musicians of the Bath 15 stood collected in one lost corner,16 waiting the appearance of the first visitor17 to play the first tune 18 of the season in form of a serenade.

1 Notable personages, Notabili täten; accompanied by = with.

2 Use the German equivalent for mayor, the English term being used in German for the chief magistrate of an English or American city only. Render the term representing occurring after mayor by the imperfect of repräsentiren and omit that expression in the two following clauses.

3 Waters, here Brunnen; establishment, Etablissement, to be pronounced as a French word.

Beyond, außerhalb.

5 Grouped snugly about, in gemüthlichen Gruppen auf; trim, here hübsch; square, Play.

6 Appeared, translate standen; townspeople

= citizens.

7 Mixed-country people, unter die sich hie und da die Landleute . . mischten; quaint, sonderbar.

8 Placidly expectant, in ruhiger Erwartung.

9 Breeches, Kniehosen.

10 Light, here blond. Hanging

behind, das hinten in einem dickgeflochtenen Zopf herunterhing.

11 Round-formed, um die so beschaffene Versammlung...berum. The term careered is the principal verb of the above sentence, which does not begin with the subject.

12 Retain the expression Detachements, pronouncing it as in French, but sounding the final 8. Plump, white-headed, fräftigen, flachshaarigen.

13 To career, here laufen; perpetual, here beständig.

14 Mysteriously apart, in mysteriöser Entfernung; rest of the other. 15 Bath, here Badeort.

16 Collected corner, in Einem verlassenen Winkel zusammengedrängt. For the rendering of the present participle waiting compare Introduction p. xvii., II., g.

17 Visitor (at watering places), Badegast or Kurgast.


18 Tune piece; in form, in der Gestalt. The expression serenade, to be pronounced as a German word, may be retained.

The light of a1 May evening was still bright2 on the tops of the great wooded hills watching high over3 the town on the right hand and the left, and the cool breeze1 that comes before sunset came keenly fragrant here with the balsamic odour of the firs of the Black Forest. ***“The diligence!" cried a child from the outskirts of the crowd.

The musicians seized their instruments, and silence fell on the whole community.8 From far away in the windings of the forest gorge 10 the ring of horses' bells came faintly clear through the evening stillness.


Play, my friends !" cried the mayor to 11 the musicians: "here are the first sick people 12 of the season. Let them 13 find us cheerful."

The band 14 played a lively dance-tune, and the children footed it 15 merrily to the music.-WILKIE COLLINS, Armadale.

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