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accidit. Fuit, fuit ista quondam in hâc republicâ virtus, ut viri fortes acrioribus suppliciis civem perniciosum, quàm acerbissimum hostem coercerent. Habemus enim senatusconsultum in te, Catilina, vehemens et grave: non deest reipublicae consilium neque auctoritas hujus ordinis: nos, nos, dico apertè, consules desumus.
II. Decrevit quondam Senatus, ut L. Opimius Cos. videret, nequid respublica detrimenti caperet : nox nulla intercessit; interfectus est propter quasdam seditionum suspiciones C. Gracchus, clarissi
pear before his tribunal. Melius, surprised, endeavoured to make his escape; Servilius commanded a Lictor to arrest him. Melius, imploring the assistance of the people, was rescued by the multitude, and again endeavoured to escape; but Servilius, pursuing him, overtook him, ran him through the body with his sword, and thus preserved the liberties of his country.
8. Senatusconsultum-The decree of the Senate, to which this passage alludes, was that, which, as soon as there was a rumour of Catiline's conspiracy, charged the Consuls to see that the republick received no detriment, and which for that purpose invested them with absolute power.
9. C. Gracchus-Caius Gracchus was a brother of Tiberius Gracehus, and like him was a favourite of the people and opposed to the Senate. In the six hundred and thirtieth year of Rome, he was chosen Tribune, and, besides many other acts of popularity, enforc ed the execution of his brother's Agrarian law, and added to it another clause. Marcus Fulvius Flaccus was one of the commissioners appointed to divide the lands. But, two years afterwards, the Consul Opimius called an assembly of the people to abrogate that law, and during the confusion, which was common in those meetings, Q. Antyllius, one of his Lictors, was killed. Opimius excited the Senators to execute immediate vengeance on Gracchus and Fulvius Flaccus, who were supposed to be the authors of the Lictor's death, but a violent shower of rain obliged the parties to separate. On the next day, Gracchus and Fulvius with their friends were assembled on mount Aventine; the Senate conferred unlimited power on Opimius; the Consul immediately attacked the partisans of Gracchus, and slew Fulvius, his sons, and three thousand of his followGracchus sought shelter in a wood consecrated to the Furies but, perceiving his enemies approach to kill him, ordered a slave to put an end to his existence.
mo patre natus, avis, Majoribus: occisus est cum liberis M. Fulvius, consularis. Simili senatusconsulto, C. Mario et L. Valerio Coss. permissa est respublica; num unum diem postea L. Saturninum tribunum-plebis et C. Servilium, praetorem, mors ac reipub. poena remorata est? At nos vigesimum jam diem patimur hebescere aciem horum auctoritatis; habemus enim hujusmodi senatusconsultum, veruntamen inclusum in tabulis, tanquam gladium in vaginâ reconditum : quo ex senatusconsulto confestìm interfectum te esse, Catilina, convenit. Vivis, et vivis non ad deponendam, sed ad confirmandam audaciam. Cupio, Patres Conscripti, me esse clementem : cupio in tantis reipublicae periculis me non dissolutum videri: sed jam me ipsum inertiae nequitiaeque condemno. Castra sunt in Italiâ contra rempub. in Etruriae faucibus collocata: crescit in dies singulos hostium numerus: eorum autem imperatorem castrorum ducemque hostium intra moenia atque adeò. in Senatu videmus, intestinam aliquam quotidie per
1. L. Saturninum.........C. Servilium-On the day of the election of Consuls in the six hundred and fifty third year of Rome, M. Antonius was elected without opposition: C. Servilius Glaucia, the Praetor, whom Cicero (in Brut. e. lxii.) calls the most wicked man that ever lived, and C. Memmius, a man of distinction, were the other candidates. Saturninus, a tribune of the people and a factious demagogue, was eager for the election of Servilius; but, fearing that Memmius would succeed, murdered him in the presence of the people. The senate immediately charged the Consuls to see the republick received no detriment. Saturninus and Servilius fled to the Capitol being besieged there by Marius, they surrendered themselves upon condition of safety; but the same day, before they were brought to trial, they were slain by the enraged citizens.
2. Vigesimum diem-The decree of the senate, charging Cicero and Antonius to see that the republick received no harm, was passed twenty days before the delivery of this oration.
niciem reipublicae molientem. Si te jam, Catilina, comprehendi, si interfici jussero, credo, erit verendum mihi, ne non hoc potiùs omnes boni seriùs a me, quàm quisquam crudeliùs factum esse dicat. Verùm ego hoc, quod jampridem factum esse oportuit, certâ de causâ nondum adducor ut faciam ; tum denique interficiere, cùm jam nemo tam improbus, tam perditus, tam tui similis inveniri poterit, qui id non jure factum esse fateatur. Quamdiu quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, vives: et vives ita, ut nunc vivis, multis meis et firmis praesidiis obsessus, ne commovere te contra rempublicam possis ; multorum te etiam oculi et aures non sentientem, sicut adhuc fecerunt, speculabuntur atque custodient.
III. Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam ampliùs expectes, si neque nox tenebris obscurare coetus nefarios, nec privata domus parietibus continere voces conjurationis tuae potest? si illustrantur, si erumpunt omnia? Muta jam istam mentem: mihi crede: obliviscere caedis atque incendiorum; teneris undique luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia omnia, quae etiam mecum licet recognoscas. Meministi
3. Certa de causá-The reasons, which induced Cicero not to put Catiline to death, were, because there were many in the city, and even some in the senate, who did not think Catiline guilty, and who would have called Cicero a tyrant, if he had ordered him to be killed: because, although Catiline were dead, yet the conspiracy would not be suppressed, but, should he be obliged to leave the city, it was probable he would carry with him all the profligate and desperate; and because it would be more safe to contend with an open enemy, than a secret, artful, and bloody-minded conspiracy. 4. Continere voces By the intrigues of Fulvia and Curius, her paramour, Cicero was informed of all the plans and proceedings of the conspirators.
ne, me ante diem "XII. Kalend. Novemb. dicere in senatu, certo die fore in armis, qui dies futuFus esset ante diem VI. Kal. Novembris, C. Manlium audaciae satellitem atque administrum tuae? num me fefellit, Catilina, non modò res tanta, tam atrox, tam incredibilis, verùm id, quod multò magis est admirandum, dies? Dixi ego idem in Senatu, caedem te optimatum contulisse in ante diem V. Kal. Novembris, tum, cùm multi principes civitatis Roma, non tam sui conservandi, quàm tuorum consiliorum reprimendorum causâ, profugerunt, Num inficiari potes, te illo ipso die meis praesidiis, meâ diligentiâ circumclusum commovere te contra rempublicam non potuisse, cùm tu, discessu caeterorum, nostrâ tamen, qui remansissemus, caede contentum te esse dicebas. Quid? cùm te 'Praeneste Kalend. ipsis Novemb. occupaturum nocturno impetu esse confideres; sensistine illam coloniam meo jussu, meis praesidiis, custodiis, vigiliisque esse munitam? nihil agis, nihil moliris,
5. XII. Kalend. Novemb. The twelfth of the Kalends of November was the twentieth day of October. See Adams' "Rudiments of Latin and English Grammar," upon the division of the Roman month, pages 289th and 290th of the Boston Edition.
6. Consiliorum reprimendorum-Many of the principal men of Rome had left the city, because they feared, that they should be put to death together with the consul by Catiline, for he had written a letter to Crassus advising him to depart, which letter was shewn to Cicero.
7. Praeneste-Catiline had designed to take the town of Praeneste, which was within twenty five miles distance from Rome, and was one of the strongest fortresses in Italy. It would have been of great use to him in the war, and would have afforded him a safe retreat if he should be defeated. Cicero, however, apprehending that he would make this attempt, put the town in a state of defence, and when Catiline came on the night of the first of November to make an attack, he found it so well guarded, that he was obliged to abandon his design.
nihil cogitas, quod ego non modò non audiam, sed etiam non videam, planèque sentiam.
IV. Recognosce tandem mecum illam superiorem noctem; jam intelliges multò me vigilare acriùs ad salutem, quàm te ad perniciem reipublicae. Dico té priori nocte venisse inter Falcarios (non agam obscurè) in M. Leccae domum: convenisse eòdem 1complures ejusdem amentiae scelerisque socios; num negare audes? quid taces? convincam, si negas; video enim esse hîc in Senatu quosdam, qui tecum unà fu- . ére. O di immortales! ubinam gentium sumus? quam rempub. habemus? in quâ urbe vivimus? hîc, hîc sunt, in nostro numero, P. C. in hoc orbis terrae sanctissimo gravissimoque concilio, qui de meo nostrúmque omnium interitu, qui de hujus urbis, atque adeò orbis terrarum exitio cogitent; hosce ego video consul, et de rep. sententiam rogo: et quos ferro trucidari oportebat, eos nondum voce vulnero. Fuisti igitur apud Leccam eâ nocte, Catilina : 2distribuisti partes Italiae: statuisti quò quemque proficisci placeret delegisti quos Romae relinqueres, quos tecum educeres : descripsisti urbis partes ad incendia confirmasti te ipsum jam esse exiturum ; dixisti paululùm tibi esse etiam tum morae, quòd ego
8. Superiorem noctem.......priori nocte-These words refer to the same night, viz. that on which Catiline and the conspirators met at the house of Lecca.
9. Falcarios-There is a doubt existing concerning the meaning of this word; but it is generally believed, that it is either a name of a street in Rome, or an appellation given to soldiers armed with scythes.
1. Complures-Sallust names eleven Senators, and there probably were many more influential men at this meeting.
2. Distribuisti-Cneius Manlius was sent to the city of Faesulae, Septimius into the Picene territory, and Caius Julius into Apulia.