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130 3. Ut omnes..... conjurarent, "that all the youth of Italy should take up arms." Conjurare here signifies "to take the military oath in a body," for as the dangers were urgent, there was no time for administering the military oath (sacramentum) to each individually. They were called tumultuarii milites, because such a conjuratio generally happened during a tumult. The juniores are all those between the ages of seventeen and forty-six, who were bound to serve in the legions.

131 2. Dissensionibus.

The dissensiones here referred to, are most probably the riots and disorders that broke out at Rome in consequence of the murder of Clodius, the trial of Milo, &c.

3. Qui.... dolerent. A relative clause expressing the reason of what goes before, takes the subjunctive. See A. and S. § 264, 8.

6. De Acconis morte. See Book VI. 44.-Casum, "misfortune." 7. Recidere posse, "might befall."

9. Deposcunt. Supply tales or eos, to which the following qui (= ut) refers.

10. Ejus =

exercitu, &c.

ejus rei. It is explained by the clause ut Caesar ab

15. Praestare interfici, "that it was better to be slain."

19. Recusare, the pres. infin. instead of the future serves to give vividness to the statement in the text.-Principes.... facturos, "that they will be the first of all to commence the war."

21. Obsidibus cavere = dare obsides in pignus fidei. (Bk. VI. 2.) -Ne refers to cavere.

22. Ut belongs to petunt, and ne (line 24) refers to the whole clause, ut jurejurando ac fide sanciatur.

26. Ejus rei, i. e. beginning the war against the Romans.

28. Desperatis. The word means, one who despairs of himself, so that, as Schmitz says, the passive desperatus has the meaning of the Greek middle voice.

29. Qui negotiandi, &c. The negotiatores or merchants in the Roman provinces were chiefly equites: their business was of a twofold nature: they either lent money at a very high per centage to the provincials, or purchased large stores of grain, which they conveyed to Italy and Rome. (Schmitz.)

35. Proximis tradunt, i. e. they formed a line of communication, being stationed at intervals. The arrangement was not unlike a modern telegraph.

132 2. Galliae totius, i. e. Celticae

9. Ex civitate, i. e. ex tota regione.

16. Qui Oceanum attingunt. The Armoric states are meant. See Book II. 34; V. 53.

20. Efficiat, i. e. efficere or conficere debeat, "which every state had to raise."

21. Summam

severitatem," the utmost rigor of power."


22. Majore commisso delicto, equivalent to a conditional clause ; 132 "if a person committed a serious crime."

30. In fide. It appears to be the same as in clientela.

32. De consilio, "in accordance with the advice." Similar expresde more, de sententia, &c.

sions are,
39. Ipsi, i. e. the Bituriges.

3. Ponendum =

in meaning to statuendum, affirmandum.

6. Urbanas res, &c. During the disturbances which took place at Rome after the murder of Clodius, Pompey was elected sole consul and ordered by the senate to watch over the safety of the whole republic. 8. Qua Before qua we must supply dubitans or nesciens : found himself in great difficulties, not knowing," &c. 17. Versus. See note, p. 124, line 34.


18. Antevertendum. The verb antevertere is, "to anticipate a person, and thereby to prevent his carrying out his plan;" omnibus consiliis is the ablative, and equivalent to prae omnibus consiliis. The sense is: "before forming any other plan, Caesar thought it necessary to go to Narbo." (Schmitz.)

20. Rutenis. A part of these people belonged to the Roman province, and these are here called Ruteni provinciales.

26. Putabat, scil. Lucterius.

27. Proficiscitur, scil. Caesar.

29. Discussa, " being cleared away."

Oudendorp rather prefers


discisa, which is the reading given by Oberlin. In that case, the word refers to the cutting away the ice with axes, &c.

32. Singulari homini, equivalent to singulis hominibus; for singularis usually signifies, that which is singular in its kind, or that which is not like any thing else. (Schmitz.)

3. Quod.... praeceperat


"because he had foreseen that Ver- 134 cingetorix would act in this manner." Usu venire is equivalent to accidere or evenire. Opinione praecipere is, "to believe a thing before it actually takes place."

4. Per causam supplementi, i. e. supplementi cogendi causa. 13. De sua salute, i. e. contra se or contra suam salutem.

18. Rursus reducit, pleonastic. It is common in the case of rursus with a verb having the prefix re.

20. Aeduisque attribuerat, i. e. ut iis stipendia et tributa solverent, "had rendered tributary to the Aedui."

23. Ne. It depends on some verb denoting fear, which is implied in the word difficultatem.

24. In eo, i. e. in Caesar.

25. Videret, scil. Gallia: "since all Gaul would see that he was unable to protect his friends."

26. Ab re. The ab here indicates the source of the possible suffering. -Durae subvectiones are "the laborious and difficult ways in which provisions are to be obtained or supplied." (Schmitz.)


134 34. Altero die, "on the second day."

36. Oppugnare instituit, scil. id, which is expressed in the next clause.

135 1. Iter faceret, viz. to Gergovia, to attack Vercingetorix.

3. Eam rem, i. e. oppugnationem urbis Vellaunoduni.

8. Continebat. Schmitz says that the town lay on both sides of the river, so that its two parts were connected by the bridge.

10. Excubare, "to keep watch," i. e. at the bridge.

14. Perpaucis . . . . caperentur, i. e. "so very few of the number of the enemies being missing, (having escaped,) that it might be said all were taken alive.”

20. Oppugnatione desistit, scil. Gergoviae.

21. Biturigum, positum in via. These words are enclosed in brackets, as being probably interpolated. Noviodunum was a town of the Aedui, and not of the Bituriges. Its modern name is Nevers on the Loire. 32. Ex significatione Gallorum, "from the signs made to one another by the Gauls."

37. Submittit. The verb submittere is the same as auxilio mittere; sub in composition frequently having the meaning of "support." 136 7. In potestatem, scil. suam.

13. Anni tempore. It was the depth of winter. See cap. 8.
15. Petere. Supply pabulum.

17. Hoc spatio. . . . videantur, i. e. "from the territory of the Boians, in all directions, as far as it appeared possible for the enemy to go to forage." Boia appears to be equivalent to terra Boia. The reading of the passage, however, is disputed and doubtful.

18. Harum rerum.

as pabulum.


The words refer to vici and aedificia, as well

Ne.... ne. Used for the more common expression utrum

an. See Arnold, Pr. Intr. 102, &c.

Hotomann thinks the last word

27. Praedamque tollendam. superfluous, though it is found in all the MSS., and required by the unelliptical and perspicuous style of Caesar. Phaedrus 2, 8; Quem convocata jubet occidi familia, Praedamque tollit. (Oudendorp.)

37. Incendi placeret. Before these words we must supply utrum, which is omitted for the purpose of making the question more lively and animated. (Schmitz.)

137 4. Et, "and that." The word following et is explanatory of the word preceding it, as often in Caesar.

6. Precibus, scil. motus; or, propter preces et propter misericordiam. The genitive vulgi is objective.

11. In.... tempora, "at all times of the day."

16. Occurrebatur. The verb occurrere is "to meet an emergency," or "to provide against it." The manner in which this was done is explained by the clause beginning with ut.

19. Intermissa, i. e. interjecta inter flumen et paludem.


The ap


proach to the town was by a narrow strip of land where the river and 137 marsh did not overflow or prevent.-Supra diximus. See cap. 15.

23. Alteri, i. e. the Aedui.

24. Alteri, i. e. the Boii.-Non magnis facultatibus, the ablative absolute," the others possessing but small means."

28. Usque eo, "to such a degree." The words belong to affecto


35. Meruisse. Supply stipendia. Stipendia merere signifies "to serve in the army."

See cap. 3.-Parentarent.

39. Genabi .... interissent. The word is here used instead of the infinitive. See Bk. II. 10, (p. 45, line 33, note,) where convenirent is employed instead of convenire. The verb parentare signifies, "to perform those rites and duties which are due to the dead;" hence also, "to take vengeance for the death of a person." (Schmitz.)

11. In artiores silvas, "in the thicker part of the woods," i. e. 138 where the crowded state of the trees prevented access.

18. Generatim, i. e. "according to the tribes to which they belonged." Some think in civitates superfluous.

19. Saltus, is "a thick wood," through which it is difficult to pass, whether on a mountain or in a plain.

21. Haesitantes, "sticking in the mire or mud."

22. Qui.... videret, "he who should see." The singular has here a collective meaning.

23. Aequo Marte, "with equal success," or "on equal terms." Mars, the god of war, is often used to designate war itself, and its various chances and mishaps.

30. Condemnari, "to be declared guilty."

39. Potuisse. This and the following infinitives depend upon a verb of "saying," which is implied in insimulatus.

4. Persuasum. Supply sibi fuisse.-Munitione, scil. naturali. 5. Neque.... et. It frequently happens in Latin, that a writer begins a clause with nec or neque, as if he was going to use another beginning with the same negative, but instead of it he employs et, the sentence not being a negative one. See Bk. IV. 29. (Schmitz.)

9. Mollitiem, "want of energy and perseverance," qualities espepecially required in this emergency.

15. Nullum. It is stronger and more emphatic than non.

16. Remittere. Supply se, "he would leave it to their own judgment."

25. Operis laborem, i, e. eundi, muniendi, oppugnandi molestiam. 30. Victorem. This and similar verbal substantives are often used as adjectives in Caesar and other writers.

34. In eo, "in the case of a person."

37. Statuunt, ut. Ut, after statuo, instead of the accusative with the infinitive, occurs occasionally.

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gens, with which in fact it is etymologically identical. 140


140 6. Falces. These are falces murales, or the iron hooks fastened to long poles, by means of which the besiegers endeavored to pull down the walls. Compare cap. 81. The Gauls caught these hooks with slings, and kept them away from the walls, (destinabant,) and then dragged them, by means of ropes (tormenta, from torqueo) into the town. (Schmitz.) 8. Subtrahebant, i. e. they dragged down the mound on which the Roman fortifications stood, by undermining, and thus causing it to fall down. Compare note, p. 65, line 24.

11. Contabulaverant. Compare note, p. 102, line 15.

14. Quantum . . . . expresserat, i. e. " as much as the earth daily accumulated had raised our towers." Caesar has used a term of art. Deprimere and exprimere are opposed to each other: the one means "to let down," the other, "to raise up."

16. Malis. The mali are perpendicular beams like masts: they were fixed either in the walls, or in the towers already standing, and thus served to raise them. (Schmitz.)

18. Morabantur. The words morari cuniculos signify the fact that the Gauls obstructed the passages of the cuniculi made by the Romans, so that they could not approach the walls.

19. Muris autem, &c. The following appears to be the mode of construction as here described by Caesar. Beams, forty feet in length,

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