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undispersed for a long period after its separation from the other members of the Indo-European stock. 262. But when from the time-forms we proceed to consider the person-forms, then English falls away. These forms appear to have been originally the six personal pronouns, which were suffixed to the verb. They constitute one of the most permanent features of the Aryan or Indo-Germanic languages, from Sanskrit downwards. Thus, the root D3 meaning to give, the six persons are thus exhibited by Curtius in the way of a scientific restoration: dd-ma give-I, dd-swa give-thou, dai-ta give-he, dai-ma-swi give-we, dà-va-vi give-you, da-anti give-they. And he asserts strongly that these forms are an indelible feature of all Indo-German tongues". The English has gone further than any of its cognates in dropping these personal inflections. The German says, Ich glaube, du glaubest, er glaubt, wir glauben, ihr glaubel, sie glauben. The Englishman says, / believe, thou believest, he believes ; we believe, you believe, they believe. And as thou believest is but rarely used, much more rarely than du glaubest, and perhaps more rarely even than ihr glaubel, we have only the -s of the third singular he believes as the one personal inflection left in ordinary use among us. Particularly is it to be observed that we have lost the N of the plural present, which is preserved in the German form glauben. We know from the Latin sums, amant, moment, regums, audiums, and from other sources, that NT was anciently a very wide-spread termination for the plural verb. This is boldly displayed in the Moesogothic verb, as may be seen

* Jene sechs àltesten Personalendungen sind recht eigentlich ein character indelibilis aller indogermanischen Sprachen.—Zur Chronologie der Indogermanischen Sprachforschung, von Georg Curtius, Leipzig 1873; p. 33.

in the following example of the present indicative of GALAUBJAN, to believe:—

I St. 2nd. 3rd.
Singular galaubja galaubeis galaubaith
Plural galaubjam galaubeith galaubjand

263. Here we have ND in the third person plural. In the Old High German it was as in Latin NT. The Germans have dropped the dental T and have kept the liquid N. We dropped the N, or rather we merged it in a thicker vowel before, and a thicker consonant after. The plural termination -áē of the Saxon present indicative is the analogue of the Gothic termination -and. In the same manner an N has been absorbed in the English words footh, goose, mouth, five, soft, which are in German 3alom, (Samé, Jumb, fünf, sanft: also in sooth, which is in Danish sand. The following is the present indicative of the Saxon verb GELYFAN, to believe:—

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The written language never had an N in the third person plural of the present indicative, not even in the oldest stage of Saxon literature. For the past tense we retained it, and also for the subjunctive mood in all tenses. The consequence is, that in our early literature verbs abound with N in the third person plural, but never in the present indicative. Thus Mark xvi. 13, and hig him me gel/dom, “neither believed they them.’ In Exodus iv. 5 we have the plural of the present subjunctive, /a:/ hig gelson, “that they may believe.’ In the former of these passages Wyclif has, And thei goynge foolden to othere, methir thei bileuyden to hem.

264. But by Chaucer's time we have the N-form of the plural even for the present indicative. It had been locally preserved, and was now for the first time seen in cultivated English. It is characteristic of transition and the beginnings of a new era, that forms hitherto neglected have a new chance of recognition.

And smale foweles maken melodye,
That slepen al the nyght with open Iye,
So priketh hem nature in hir corages—
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrymages.

The same thing may be seen in the quotation from Gower, above, 197. This -N was retained as one of the recognised archaisms available only for poetic diction, and it long continued in the heroic or mock-heroic style, as we see in the following, from the eighteenth century.

In every village mark'd with little spire,
Embower'd in trees, and hardly known to fame,
There dwells, in lowly shed and mean attire,
A matron old, whom we Schoolmistress name,
Who boasts unruly brats with birch to tame;
They o sore, in piteous durance pent,
Aw'd by the power of this relentless dame,
And oft times, on vagaries idly bent,
For unkempt hair, or task unconn'd, are sorely shent.

William Shenstone (1714–1763), The Schoolmistress.

265. In the ordinary paths of the language, however, the personal inflections were reduced nearly to their present simplicity before the Elizabethan era.

The tenacity of which we spoke displays itself most conspicuously in the tense-forms; that is to say, the forms used for expressing varieties of time.

The boldest feature which is found among the verbs of our family, is the formation of the preterite by an internal vowel-change, without any external addition. The regulating law of this vowel-change is called Ablaut, and has been explained above, 123. This character supplies a basis for the division of the verbs into three classes, the Strong, the Mixed, and the Weak.

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1. STRONG VERBs.

266. The Strong are of the highest antiquity, are limited in number, are gradually but very slowly passing away, as one by one at long intervals they drop out of use and are not recruited by fresh members. They are characterised by the internal formation of the preterite, and by the formation of the participle in N. This latter feature has however been less constant than the preterite. The following list comprises most of these verbs. Only those forms which are given in the ordinary type are in full use. Those in black letter flourished in mediaeval times; those in thick type are chiefly of the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries; and those in italics are curt and negligent forms, many of which belong to the eighteenth century. The few which are in SMALL CAPITALs are Saxon forms. Those in spaced type are from a collateral language or dialect.

267. Only the simple verbs are given, and not their compounds. The list contains come, hold, get; but not become, behold, beget; bid but not forbid, give but not forgive, rise but not arise. On the other hand, those compounds whose simples no longer exist in the language, are here given, as abide, begin, forsake.

INFINITIVE PRETERITE PARTICIPLE

abide abode [a]bidden + bake " be uk # baken

bear bore, bare borne and born beat beat beaten, beat begin began begun

BELGAN BEALH Bolgen, bowln * BeON • - - bin, been

bid bade, bid + bidden, bid

bind bound bounden, bound

bite - - - bate *, bote *, bit bitten, bit

PRETERITE

blew

BEAH
broke, brake
brast

carf +
coost +
chid, chode +
chose
clove, clave
clave

clomb

clung

came cropt *, crap * crew

quoth

Dalfe

dug

drew
drank, drunk
drove

ate

PARTICIPLE

blown

bowne *

broken bursten, burst CORFEN, carven casten + chidden, chid chosen

cloven

clombert

clung comen”, come cropen “, cruppen GECWEDEN dolven

dug

INFINITIVE

blow
bow
break
burst
Carye
Cast
chide
choose
cleave (= divide)
cleave (= adhere)
climb
cling
coine
creep
croW
CWEPAN
delve
dig
draw
drink
drive
eat

fall
fight
find
fling

fly forsake freeze get give glide gnaw go GRAFAN. grind grow heave

fell

fought

found
fitng, flung, flang
flew

forsook

froze
gat, got
gave
glob “, glode
gnew *

GROF
gront, ground
grew

hove

drawn drunken +, drunk driven

eaten fallen, fell foughten", fought foundtn, found flung

flown

forsaken

frozen
gotten, got

given

gnawn +

gone

graven” gruntlem, ground grown

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