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The examples which follow may therefore be considered as a continuation of the corresponding group in the Section of nounal adverbs, and differing from them only in the degree of sublimation. All. A pronominal adverb of great delicacy and power: Through the veluet leaues the winde, All vnseene, can passage finde.
Loues Labour's lost, iv. 3.
. . . feeling that my praise of Harvey has been all too feeble.—George Rolleston, The Harveian Oration, 1873, p. 9o.
Yond, yon, yonder. 492.
Adam. Yonder comes my Master, your brother.
501. Up. This is clearly a presentive word so long as the original idea of elevation is preserved. But it passes off into a more refined use, a more purely mental service, and then we call it no longer a noun but a pronoun. The instance of breaking-up is an interesting one. It is one of those in which the flat adverb has attached itself very closely to the verb, and has with the verb attained a peculiar appropriation of meaning. This expression now is apt to suggest the holidays of a school-boy, but in the sixteenth century it was the proper expression for burglary:— If a thiefe bee found breaking vp.—Exodus xxii. 2. Suffered his house to be broken vp.—Matthew xxiv. 43. If he beget a sonne that is a breaker vp of a house.—Ezekiel xviii. Io (margin). Mr. Froude quotes a letter of the reign of Queen Elizabeth in which a burglary is confessed in these terms:–
With other companions who were in straits as well as myself, I was forced to give the onset and break up a house in Warwickshire, not far from Wakefield.—History, vol. xi. p. 28. An old ship is sold ‘to be broken up,' and akin to this we find the substantive a break-up — The death of a king in those days came near to a break-up of all civil society.—E. A. Freeman, Norman Conquest, ch. xxi. There is a rich variety of expressions in which up figures in the character which belongs here; e.g. to be “knocked up,’ ‘done up,” “patched up,' to be “up to a thing,’ ‘up with a person,’ ‘keeping it up late,’ ‘open up 503. The verb to come up is equivalent to coming into notice, or even into being ; and in the following quotation it translates éyévero:As for wise.dome what she is, and how she came vp, I will tell you.Wisedome of Solomon, vi. 22. At length it becomes a mere symbol of emphasis. In A'om. vi. 13, ‘yield yourselves unto God,” it is proposed by Bishop Ellicott to restore a certain lost emphasis by the correction, “yield yourselves up to God.” Still. In the next examples the reader may notice that ‘still run’ and ‘still to move’ would be pure stultifications if the word still were taken in its original and presentive signification of motionless stillness. This affords a sort of measure of the symbolic change that has passed over the word. Having past from my hand under a broken and imperfect copy, by fre
quent transcription it still run (sic) forward into corruption.—Thomas Browne, Religio Medici, Preface.
They are left enough to live on, but not enough to enable them still to move in the society in which they have been brought up.–John BoydKinnear, Woman's Work, p. 353.
502. Rather. This word may serve as an illustration of the grounds on which we assign these words to the pronominal category. In an interesting letter from Sir Hugh Luttrell, in the year 1420, we have this word in its presentive sense. He is in France, and he is displeased that certain orders of his have not been carried out, and he hints that if his commands are not fulfilled, he is alive, and ‘schalle come home, and that rather than some men wolde,' that is to say, he shall be at home earlier than would be agreeable to some people. Rather is the comparative of an obsolete adjective rathe, which signified “early. It is found once in Milton, Lycidas, 142 – Bring the rathe Primrose that forsaken dies, The tufted Crow-toe, and pale Gessamine. Now compare the way in which we habitually employ this word, and a plainer example could hardly be found of the distinction between the nature of the noun and that of the pronoun. The word is so common that we can hardly read a paragraph in any daily or weekly article without coming across it, and probably more than once. He fails to be truly pathetic because we do not see the agony wrung out of a strong man by the inevitable wrongs and sorrows of the world, but the easy yielding of a nature that rather likes a little gentle weeping. Mr. Pickwick, with his love of mankind stimulated with a little milk-punch, is not the most elevated type of philanthropy, though it is one which is rather prevalent at the present day. In these respects Mr. Dickens's influence
tended rather towards a softening of the moral fibre than towards strengthening it.—July 16, 1870.
Too. This is an Ablaut-variety of the preposition to :
Spake I not too truly, O my knights?
503. So. This famous pronominal factor, which has already been spoken of in both the previous sections, must come in here likewise:—
And he was competent whose purse was so.
A declaration so bold and haughty silenced them and astonished their aSSOciates.
The presentive idea to which this so points back may be found by reference to Robertson's Charles the Fifth, Bk. I. anno 1516, and the abruptness of the clause as it stands gives a measure of the pronominal nature of the adverb so.
Or dwells within our hidden soul
That further can the page unveil,
G. J. Cornish, Come to the Woods, and Other Poems, lxxiii.
In goodnes therefore there is a latitude or extent, whereby it commeth to passe that euen of good actions some are better then other some; whereas otherwise one man could not excell another, but all should be either absolutely good, as hitting jumpe that indiuisible point or center wherein goodnesse consisteth; or else missing it they should be excluded out of the number of wel-doers.-Richard Hooker, Of the Laws, &c. I. viii. 8. And bring him iumpe, when he may Cassio finde.
Othello, ii. 3. 369.
For this adverb the editors substitute just. In the following quotation from the First Folio, the old Quartos have jump :—
Mar. Thus twice before, and iust at this dead houre,
Hamlet, i. I. 65.
just. How much of enjoyment life shows us, just one hair's breadth beyond our power to grasp.–The Bramleighs, ch. xxxi. r solid.
‘You don't mean that?’ ‘I do, solid 1’ (Leicestershire.)
Suppose a man's here for twelve months. Do you mean to say he never comes out at that little iron door ?—He may walk some, perhaps :—not much.-Charles Dickens, in Foster's Life, ch. xxi.
It is not necessary to the Flat Adverb that it should consist of a single word, though it generally does so. Such adverbs as that time, no thynge, the right way, the wrong way, the while must be placed here.
that time, no thynge.
Ireland pat tyme was bygged no bynge
R. Brunne's Chronicle (Lambeth MS.).
TRANSLATION.—Ireland at that time was not-at-all built with house nor town, nor man resident.
He said he loved and was beloved no thing.
Next we have the adverb nothing in one word, as “nothing loth,’ ‘nothing doubting.’
Here we must, at least provisionally, and without speculation on their origin, put the adverbs of affirmation, yea and yes, Saxon GE and GESE.
The following is from Dr. Bosworth's Parallel Gospels, Matthew v. 37:—
Matthew xi. 9:— Yai, qipa izvis. 3e, I seie to Ye, I sayevnto Yea, I say vnto you. you. you. 504. Next we come upon a member which is inconsiderable in its bulk, unimposing in its appearance, and which is inconspicuous by the very continuousness of its presence;