The Forgotten Revolution: How Science Was Born in 300 BC and Why it Had to Be Reborn

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Springer Science & Business Media, 26 nov 2003 - 487 pagine
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The period from the late fourth to the late second century B. C. witnessed, in Greek-speaking countries, an explosion of objective knowledge about the external world. WhileGreek culture had reached great heights in art, literature and philosophyalreadyin the earlier classical era, it is in the so-called Hellenistic period that we see for the ?rst time — anywhere in the world — the appearance of science as we understand it now: not an accumulation of facts or philosophically based speculations, but an or- nized effort to model nature and apply such models, or scienti?ctheories in a sense we will make precise, to the solution of practical problems and to a growing understanding of nature. We owe this new approach to scientists such as Archimedes, Euclid, Eratosthenes and many others less familiar todaybut no less remarkable. Yet, not long after this golden period, much of this extraordinary dev- opment had been reversed. Rome borrowed what it was capable of from the Greeks and kept it for a little while yet, but created very little science of its own. Europe was soon smothered in theobscurantism and stasis that blocked most avenues of intellectual development for a thousand years — until, as is well known, the rediscovery of ancient culture in its fullness paved the way to the modern age.
 

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LibraryThing Review

Recensione dell'utente  - JonathanGorman - LibraryThing

Has some pretty interesting references to ancient Greek science and technology. It appeals to the mad scientist/geeky side of myself. If you like Lenoardo da Vinci's work you'll like reading this ... Leggi recensione completa

LibraryThing Review

Recensione dell'utente  - tfrab - LibraryThing

Lo scopo principale del libro è rivalutare la Scienza Ellenistica, non mancano però considerazioni più generali, specie sull'attuale crisi scientifica. All'inizio del saggio Russo determina le ... Leggi recensione completa

Indice

The Birth of Science
5
12 On the Word Hellenistic
10
13 Science
15
14 Was There Science in Classical Greece?
21
15 Origins of Hellenistic Science
27
Hellenistic Mathematics
31
22 Euclids HypotheticoDeductive Method
39
23 Geometry and Computational Aids
41
Some Other Aspects of the Scientific Revolution
203
72 Conscious and Unconscious Cultural Evolution
209
73 The Theory of Dreams
214
74 Propositional Logic
218
75 Philological and Linguistic Studies
221
76 The Figurative Arts Literature and Music
224
The Decadence and End of Science
231
82 Rome Science and Scientific Technology
235

24 Discrete Mathematics and the Notion of Infinity
44
25 Continuous Mathematics
45
26 Euclid and His Predecessors
48
27 An Application of the Method of Exhaustion
49
28 Trigonometry and Spherical Geometry
52
Other Hellenistic Scientific Theories
57
32 Geodesy and Mathematical Geography
65
33 Mechanics
70
34 Hydrostatics
73
35 Pneumatics
75
36 Aristarchus Heliocentrism and Relative Motion
78
37 From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe
86
38 Ptolemaic Astronomy
89
Scientific Technology
95
41 Mechanical Engineering
96
42 Instrumentation
98
43 Military Technology
105
44 Sailing and Navigation
112
45 Naval Architecture The Pharos
115
46 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Engineering
118
47 Use of Natural Power
123
48 The Antikythera Mechanism
128
49 Herons Role
130
410 The Lost Technology
137
Medicine and Other Empirical Sciences
143
52 Relationship Between Medicine and Exact Sciences
145
53 Anatomical Terminology and the Screw Press
150
54 The Scientific Method in Medicine
151
55 Development and End of Scientific Medicine
156
56 Botany and Zoology
158
57 Chemistry
165
The Hellenistic Scientific Method
171
62 Postulates or Hypotheses
174
63 Saving the Phainomena
175
64 Definitions Scientific Terms and Theoretical Entities
179
65 Episteme and Techne
185
66 Postulates and the Meaning of Mathematics and Physics
187
67 Hellenistic Science and Experimental Method
194
68 Science and Orality
196
69 Where Do Cliches about Ancient Science Come From?
197
83 The End of Ancient Science
240
Science Technology and Economy
243
92 Scientific and Technological Policy
245
93 Economic Growth and Innovation in Agriculture
249
94 Nonagricultural Technology and Production
253
95 The Role of the City in the Ancient World
257
96 The Nature of the Ancient Economy
260
97 Ancient Science and Production
263
Lost Science
269
102 Eratosthenes Measurement of the Meridian
273
103 Determinism Chance and Atoms
277
104 Combinatorics and Logic
281
105 Ptolemy and Hellenistic Astronomy
282
106 The Moon the Sling and Hipparchus
286
107 A Passage of Seneca
293
108 Rays of Darkness and Triangular Rays
296
109 The Idea of Gravity after Aristotle
302
1010 Tides
305
Sling or Ellipsoid?
309
1012 Seleucus and the Proof of Heliocentrism
311
1013 Precession Comets etc
315
1014 Ptolemy and Theon of Smyrna
317
1015 The First Few Definitions in the Elements
320
The AgeLong Recovery
329
112 The Renaissance
335
113 The Rediscovery of Optics in Europe
344
114 A Late Disciple of Archimedes
349
Kepler and Descartes
355
116 Terrestrial Motion Tides and Gravitation
360
117 Newtons Natural Philosophy
365
118 The Rift Between Mathematics and Physics
379
119 Ancient Science and Modern Science
385
1110 The Erasure of Ancient Science
388
1111 Recovery and Crisis of Scientific Methodology
391
Appendix
399
List of Passages
403
References
419
General Index
435
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