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W. P. I



For the last forty years there has been a growing tendency to load the text-book of a Latin author with matter about the author and his times. The numerous American and foreign editions of selections from Cicero's orations have undoubtedly been very useful and have reflected much credit upon the diligence and scholarship of the editors; but they have all fallen short of the ideal text-book as a means for the preparation of assigned lessons. Some of them, furnishing an abundance of bibliographical and other material for the teacher's use, have been admirable from the teacher's standpoint and should be in every Latin teacher's library. Others have had excellent pictorial illustrations but such meager commentary as to leave the student unpiloted amid the rich flow of Cicero's eloquence. To let the author, after a complete but moderate introduction, interpret himself through suggestions of his real meaning, given in adequate English, has seemed to the editors of this edition the proper principle upon which to make the text-book of a Latin author for American schools. Cicero the man, and not Cicero the historical figure surrounded by people with little or no interest for us, has been our chief concern.

The aim in making this edition has been helpfulness toward an appreciation of Cicero and of such of his literary work as we have been able to include in this school text-book. Too great a display of borrowed or original erudition will, we hope, not be found anywhere between its covers.

The smoothing out of difficulties which the pupil may reasonably be expected to conquer by himself has been avoided, but such help as seemed to be required by the ordinary student has been freely given. In the few cases where the reading presents genuine difficulty, a plausible solution is given without comment. We believe that it is simpler and in the long run more effective to be able to say to pupils, "Study the whole book.”

The text of an edition of a Latin author is necessarily its most important feature. We have used the admirable text of Mr. Albert S. Clark, Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. thanks are due to Mr. Clark and the Delegates of the Clarendon Press for permission to publish in this country Mr. Clark's text of all the orations in this volume except the Archias. In the case of the Archias, Mr. Clark generously furnished us with his text, that has lately appeared in a volume of the Oxford Classical Texts. It is needless to state that Mr. Clark's text represents the most advanced criticism and the latest application of conservative common sense to the making of a text of Cicero.

We have also to thank the Director of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, for permission to publish a photograph of the Head of a Roman in that Museum, and Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons for allowing us to use the Map of the Roman Empire.

In the matter of hidden quantities, we follow the marking in the Revised Edition of Lane's Latin Grammar and Bennett's Latin Language (Revision of his Appendix).

The illustrations have been carefully selected to picture the environment of the orator as it was in the republican, and not as it was in the imperial, period. The source of each illustration is indicated with exactness in the list.

The Vocabulary at the end of this volume has been compiled especially for this book from the Lexicons of Merguet.

A word should be added regarding the inclusion of the Murena in this edition. American school editions seem generally to have omitted this oration, yet it exhibits the powers of the author to a generous degree. The Milo and the Murena will together afford ample material for rapid reading, and will also be welcomed by those teachers who prefer to vary the reading of their classes from year to year.

If we have to some degree made it a more satisfactory task to introduce the adolescent mind to the polished diction and the fervid oratory of Cicero, we feel justified in presenting this volume to the kindly criticism of our colleagues. We hope that the general character of the work will show that any errors it may contain have not resulted from lack of care.

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