Fuel Cell Systems

Copertina anteriore
L.J.M.J. Blomen, M.N. Mugerwa
Springer Science & Business Media, 31 gen 1994 - 614 pagine
1 Recensione
In light of recent alarming environmental trends combined with increasing commercial viability of fuel cells, the time is propitious for a book focusing on the systematic aspects of cell plant technology. This multidisciplinary text covers the main types of fuel cells, R&D issues, plant design and construction, and economic factors to provide industrial and academic researchers working in electrical systems design, electrochemistry, and engineering with a unique and comprehensive resource.
 

Cosa dicono le persone - Scrivi una recensione

Nessuna recensione trovata nei soliti posti.

Indice

11 INTRODUCTION
19
122 Successors to Grove
21
124 F Haber and His Pupils
22
725 W Nernst
23
126 E Baur and His School
24
13 THE NEXT 50 YEARS 19391989
26
131 F T Bacon 19041992
27
132 O K Davtyan USSR Moscow Tiflis Odessa
28
763 Defense Applications of Alkaline Fuel Cells
262
764 Electric Vehicle Applications of Alkaline Fuel Cells
263
765 Stationary Applications of Alkaline Fuel Cells
264
77 DEMONSTRATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION
265
772 Specific Markets
266
774 Stationary Markets
267
776 Further Improvements Needed
268
81 INTRODUCTION
271

734 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
29
735 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
31
737 Solid Polymer Fuel Cell
32
139 Methanol Fuel Cell
33
21 FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF FUEL CELL SYSTEMS
37
212 Electrode Kinetics Aspects
38
213 Classification of Fuel Cells and Scope of This Chapter
41
22 ALKALINE FUEL CELLS
42
222 Operating Conditions
43
224 Methods for Cooling Electrochemical Cell Stacks
47
23 PHOSPHORIC AND OTHER ACID ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS
48
232 Operating Conditions
49
233 Typical Cell Materials and Configurations
50
234 Methods for Cooling of Electrochemical Cell Stacks
51
236 Applications and Economics
52
24 MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS
53
242 Operating Conditions
54
244 Methods for Cooling of Electrochemical Cell Stacks
56
245 Acceptable Contaminant Levels
57
25 SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS
58
252 Typical Cell Materials Configurations and Operational Conditions
59
253 Methods for Cooling of Electrochemical Cell Stacks
63
262 Operating Conditions
64
263 Typical Cell Materials
65
264 Acceptable Contamination Levels
67
265 Methods for Cooling of Electrochemical Cell Stacks
68
28 RELATIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FUEL CELLS
69
31 INTRODUCTION
73
322 The Thermodynamics and Electrode Kinetics of Fuel Cells
74
323 Elements of a Fuel Cell
84
33 THE ALKALINE FUEL CELL
88
332 The Electrode Reactions
90
333 Alternative Types
93
342 The Electrode Reactions
94
343 Alternative Types of Acid Fuel Cells
97
352 The Electrode Reactions Electrolyte
99
353 The Internal Reforming MCFC IR MCFC
104
36 THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL
105
362 The Electrode Reactions Electrolyte
106
363 Future Research and Development
109
372 The Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell
110
373 The Redox Fuel Cell
111
374 The Fuel Cell as a Chemical Reactor
113
38 PROBLEM AREAS IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
114
382 Diagnostic Tools
115
41 INTRODUCTION
121
42 RAW MATERIAL OPTIONS FOR HYDROGEN
122
43 INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
125
44 STEAM REFORMING OF HYDROCARBONS
129
45 PARTIAL OXIDATION OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS
144
46 COAL GASIFICATION
145
47 METHANOL STEAM REFORMING
150
48 MATERIALS FOR HYDROGEN SERVICES
151
51 BACKGROUND
157
522 Fuel Utilization
158
523 Cell Efficiency
160
524 Carnot Machines and Fuel Cells
163
525 Overall System Efficiencies
172
53 PARTLOAD CHARACTERISTICS
179
54 RESPONSE TIME SPINNING RESERVE CAPABILITY
180
55 EMISSIONS
181
552 Acoustic Emissions
183
554 Esthetics
184
57 SITING FLEXIBILITY
187
58 LIFETIME
188
59 WASTE DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS ON DISMANTLING OF PLANT
189
511 RELIABILITY
190
512 STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN
191
515 SAFETY
192
5172 Fuel Cells and Pure Hydrogen Fuel
194
518 FUEL CELL POWER PLANT ECONOMICS
196
519 CONCLUSIONS
197
61 INTRODUCTION
201
62 THE IMPORTANCE OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM INTEGRATION
203
63 THE DESIGN OF FUEL CELL SYSTEMS
206
633 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design
211
634 Trends in Fuel Cell System Design
214
635 Other Fuel Cell Systems
215
64 THE OPTIMIZATION OF FUEL CELL SYSTEMS
216
642 Fuel Cell Cooling
225
643 Reformer Geometry
226
644 Heat and Power Integration
228
65 PROCESS OPTIONS
232
652 Cathode Air as Combustion Air
233
653 Carbon Dioxide Removal
234
66 FEEDSTOCKS
235
67 EFFECT OF SCALE
237
68 LOAD RESPONSE
238
69 COGENERATION
239
610 RELIABILITY
240
612 CONCLUSIONS
242
71 INTRODUCTION
245
72 MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS
246
722 Electrolytes
247
723 Alkaline Fuel Cell Stacks
248
724 Alkaline Fuel Cell Systems
249
73 ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE
250
734 Influence of Temperature
251
736 Endurance
252
743 Current Collection
253
746 Fuel Cell System Controller
254
753 Alkaline Fuel Cells in the United States
259
754 Alkaline Fuel Cells in Japan
260
76 APPLICATION AREAS FOR ALKALINE FUEL CELLS
261
82 HISTORICAL REVIEW OF PAFC DEVELOPMENTS
273
822 PAFC Demonstration Programs in the United Stares
274
823 PAFC Demonstration Programs in Japan
280
824 PAFC Demonstration Program in Europe
283
83 PAFC CELL PERFORMANCE AND STACK COMPONENTS
284
832 Factors Affecting Stack Performance
287
833 Cooling Method
293
834 Structure of Cell Stacks
298
835 Cell Life
310
836 Cell Stack Design Configuration
313
84 KEY COMPONENTS OF PAFC SYSTEMS
316
842 Inverter
318
843 Control System
322
844 Overall Plant Efficiency and Utilization Factor
325
85 APPLICATION AND OPERATION OF PAFC PLANTS
326
852 GridConnected and GridIndependent Configuration
328
853 Application of PAFC Plants
329
854 Operation of PAFC Plants
332
855 Applicable Heat Source in Onsite Plants
336
86 PAFC SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD
337
862 Development Organizations in the United States
338
863 Development Organizations in Japan
339
864 Development Organizations in Europe
341
91 INTRODUCTION
345
92 CONCEPT AND COMPONENTS
346
922 Electrodes and Electrolyte
348
923 Cell Structure
349
924 Electrolyte Distribution
352
925 Internal Reforming
354
926 Stack Structure
357
93 CELL DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE
359
932 Cell Voltage
361
933 Efficiency
366
934 ElectrodeElectrolyte Structure and Fabrication
368
935 Electrolyte Management
370
936 Electrode Microstructure and Polarization
372
937 Current and Temperature Distribution
376
938 StateoftheArt Performance
379
939 Corrosion and Cathode Dissolution
383
9310 Contaminant Effects
388
9311 Electrolyte Optimization
391
9312 LongTerm Performance
394
94 STACK DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
398
942 Separator Plate
404
943 Manufacturing Issues
409
944 Thermal Management and Internal Reforming in MCFC Stacks
415
945 Gas Recycling and MCFC System Design
428
946 Electrolyte Migration and Loss
436
947 Stack Performance Data
442
95 STATUS
453
952 RD Programs and Demonstration Projects
454
953 Commercialization
456
101 INTRODUCTION
465
1012 History
466
1013 Recent Advances in SOFC Technology
467
1022 Metal Cathodes
468
1024 Electronically Conducting Oxide Cathodes
469
1025 Oxides with Mixed Conduction
471
103 ANODE DEVELOPMENT
472
104 ELECTROLYTE DEVELOPMENT
473
105 INTERCONNECT DEVELOPMENT
474
106 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MULTICELL STACKS
475
1062 Tubular Design
476
1063 Monolithic Design
481
1064 Planar Design
483
107 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
485
1073 RD Activity in the United States Japan and Europe
486
1082 Research and Development Funding Structures
487
1083 Estimates of Research Development and Demonstration
488
1084 Projected Capital Cost and Cost of Electricity
489
111 INTRODUCTION
493
112 HISTORY
495
1122 7952 to Present
498
111 RECENT RESEARCH
500
1131 Tolerance to Reformed Fuels
501
1132 Membranes
503
1133 Catalyst Reduction
506
114 DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION
508
1141 Systems under Development
509
1142 Current Applications
513
121 INTRODUCTION
531
122 INSTALLEDCOST ESTIMATING AND COST REDUCTION
532
123 COSTS OF POWER PRODUCTION
536
124 SENSITIVITY ANALYSES AND COMPARISONS WITH CONVENTIONAL POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES
544
125 COGENERATION
551
1252 Basis of Calculation
553
1253 Effect of Cogeneration on the Cost of Electricity for Fuel Cell and Conventional Technologies
554
1254 Discussion
557
126 COMPOSITE SYSTEMS
558
128 CONCLUSIONS
561
131 INTRODUCTION
565
1321 Generation Industry
567
1322 Onsite Cogeneration and Generation
569
1323 Portable or Mobile
570
133 FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS
571
134 MARKET OPPORTUNITY
573
1342 Equipment and Market Readiness
575
1344 Worldwide Market Potential
576
1345 Market Penetration
578
135 FUEL CELL READINESS
579
Epilogue
583
Index
589
Copyright

Altre edizioni - Visualizza tutto

Parole e frasi comuni

Brani popolari

Pagina 16 - Several different liquid and solid media can be used to created the fuel cell's electrochemical reaction — phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane (PEM).
Pagina 581 - US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, New Electric Power Technologies: Problems and Prospects for the 1990s, OTA-E-246 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, July 1985). SOURCE: Office of Technology Assessment ,1991, from Renova Engineering, PC, "Oil Replacement Analysis—Evaluation of Technologies," OTA contractor report, February 1991.

Riferimenti a questo libro

Tutti i risultati di Google Ricerca Libri »

Informazioni bibliografiche