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afterwards personified, applied to their principal leaders, and worshipped. *
I shall, therefore, draw a parallel from the most approved writers, between the patriarchs and those called the heathen gods; and when the circumstances which are related, concerning these deities, are shown to be the same as are recorded by the sacred penman, it will be allowed that the mythology was framed from the scripture, or that, agreeably to their significant representative method of writing, these writers conveyed the truths of the scriptures in such allegorical figures.
Eusebius has given us much information respecting this subject, from Sanchoniathon, the Phoenician historian, who says, "the great God, Elion, generated the heaven and the earth." Elion is a Hebrew word, which was literally copied by the Greeks, eM»w, and which means, the most high. The same word is applied to God. Gen. xiv. El Elion. God Most High.
The wife of Elion is said by the above writer to be Berith, a Hebrew word, which means, covenant, so it is rendered in the translation, but it more properly means, a purifying sacrifice ; which God ordained for his people; and which was considered by the church as the mother of mercy. The Phoenicians and the Canaanites supposed, that this Berith was a goddess, the wife of Elion, the most high. And hence we read, Judges viii. 33. that the Israelites, after the death of Gideon, fell into the idolatry of the heathens, and worshipped this Phoenician idol. Baal-Berith means ' the Lord of the covenant,' or,' the Lord of the purifying sacrifice.'
It appears evident, that the Saturn of the heathens, was Noah: Saturn was called by them, the father of all,— a preacher of righteousness—that under Saturn, all things were each other's in common—that under Saturn's reign, all was peace; it was therefore termed, the golden age— that all men used one speech—the wife of Saturn was called Rhea, or earth. Noah was called, a man of the earth, or a husbandman—Saturn is said to be a planter of vines, as Noah planted a vineyard—It is recorded of Saturn, that he drank the juice of the grapes, and was drunken—that he was the author of a law, which forbade the gods to behold the nakedness of men, alluding to the crime of Ham.—Saturn is said to have arisen with his wife and children, from the sea—like Noah after the deluge—A ship was one of the symbols of Saturn, in which he sailed about the world—Saturn, like Noah, foretold Deucalion's flood—Saturn, is said to have devoured his own children, except three, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto: which alludes to Noah, and his three sotis, Shem, Ham, and Japhet—Saturn, and his three sons divided the world, the same is said of Noah.
Janus, as well as Saturn, in the mythology, without doubt, refers to Noah. The Latins appear to have derived it from flS Jain, 'wine,"1 adding the masculine termination, us, which makes Jainus, or Janus, a door, or entrance; a name very proper for Noah, who, on his entrance into the new world when he descended from the ark, was the first who planted the vine.
It must necessarily be allowed, that Neptune was Japhet, the son of Noah. Bochart derives the name of Neptune, from iiriBJ Niphtha, which belongs to Niphal, or the passive conjugation of fins Patha, 'to enlarge:' Hence it is said of ns1) Japhet, Gen ix. 27. "God shall enlarge Japhet."
Neptune, was called by the ancient Greeks, TlaettSm which has a similar meaning, with Japhet. Herodotus says, that the Hoo.tidm was used by the Lybians, who worshipped this idol. This word is verbatim, the same as the Phoenician JlSSjys Pesitan, from the root Bjys Pesit, ito rush from concealment,' as Japhet from the ark, 'to spread abroad, to expand .-1 from which it appears, that the Hebrew, Phoenician, and Greek have the same application, and mean Neptune or Japhet. Bochart says,* Japhet, passed for Neptune, the god of the sea, because his portion was in the Islands and Peninsulas. So Lactantius,f All the maritime places, with the Islands, belonged to Neptune.
The Phoenicians and the Greeks style Jupiter Zivs Zeus. This word is derived from C3H Ham, which in both Hebrew, Phoenician and Greek, means 'heat.' The Egyptians soon after the flood, called Ham the father of Egypt,]: which appears perfectly true, for Egypt is called in scripture, both by the name of Mitzraim, the son of Ham, and of Ham also. Psalm cv. 23—27. "Israel also came into Egypt, and Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham." Ham was written by the Greeks "AftK.»» •hnmon. Hence he was called Jupiter Amnion.
Sanchoniathon, and Philo-Biblius call Jupiter Tsedek, which is literally taken from TO the Hebrew word for 'Just? Jupiter is also called, Taranis, which means, : to thunder ,•' from the Phoenician word Dym tarem, and the Hebrew !"|Ejn rangmah,' thunder.'
Jupiter is evidently derived from |"|S Jah, so called by the Greeks, Ja, and irarnf, father, i. e. Ja, or Jehovah father. The circumstances, and acts attributed to Jupiter are evidently taken from the scripture. Jupiter is ?aid in the mythology to have rebelled against his father, Saturn, as Haw. rebelled against Noah.
* Phaleg. 1. 1. C. 2.
t De falsa Relig. 1. 1. C. 11
% Vossius de Idolat. 1. 1. C. 27.
Juno, in the mythology, is fabled to be the wife of Jupiter. It is proper to remark, that, among the heathen nations, the sun and the moon were their primary idols, and in reference to these two idols, the prophet says, " Bel bovveth down, Nebo stoopeth." Isaiah xlvi. 1.—Bel signifies the sun, from the Hebrew ?fl El, ' God,' I he sun being the supreme object in all nature, and the soul of animal life. Hence, also, the Greek 'HA, or iA<«« the sun; and, as the Babylonians applied this word, Stt El, or Bel, to the sun, so they applied 'Qi Nebo, to the moon, as the word in connexion with Sk El, signifies, for Nebo means, to increase, and in connexion with the sun, means, the moon when increasing in light: thus it appears, that we have a true understanding of this passage of scripture.
Apollo was also one of the appellatives of Joshua. -A?roAA»» Jlpollon, means 'to destroy? so Joshua was a destroyer, commanded to destroy the idolatrous worship of the Canaanites—Joshua, in Hebrew, means a saviour, thus by destroying the idolatry of the Canaanites, he was appointed to be the saviodr of the Hebrews.
The name of Apollo has never been carried further back than the time of the ancient Greeks, before the time of Homer, but it is evidently derived from the Hebrew i"l7Bfl Hapolaah,' to separate, divide.' The vulgate renders Exod. ii. 7. quanto miraculo dividet, to divide miraculously; to separate between the good and evil— io pronounce judgment—to intercede between the judge and ihe criminal—A wonderful separation, exceeding experience, poxeer or expectation.* Gen. xviii. 14. 2 Chron. vxvi. 15. All which most eminently applies to Noah.
's Vide Parkhurst, I. 1.
who was appointed to pronounce judgment, to intercede
and finally, to separate, until judgment was executed.
History and tradition had handed down to the ancient Greeks, all the circumstances of the flood, and the destruction of the old world, by this nSs|"I, miraculous judgment, from which word they framed the word 'AwoAAm» Apollon, 'to destroy? This also gave rise to the Delphic Oracle: for as Noah had been a wonderful oracle fo the Antediluvians; so the ancient Greeks built a magnificent temple, at Delphos, and erected a statue, to perpetuate that awful miracle, and the man who had been obedient to the divine command. In the hand of the statue, they put a golden bow, mentioned by the Greek poets,—
"He from his golden bow."
Which was taken from scripture, in the narrative after the flood, viz: "I do set my bow in the cloud."
Diodorus, speaking of Apollo, says, that by the wars of the gods, the giants became extinct. Nothing can more accurately point out the period of the deluge. In Gen. vi. 4. it is said, " There were giants in the earth in those days:"" and by the judgment of God, the whole race was sw ept from the face of the earth, except Noah, and his family, the giants, or great men, together with all of inferior degree, appear to have been swallowed in the universal ruin.
Apollo is rendered famous by Homer, for destroying Typhon; Python and Typhon are only dialectic variations, they mean the same man, viz. Og, the king of Bashan, as follows under Hercules.
Bacchus, from the place where he obtained a knowledge of all the learning of the east, was called Diony