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- 2. Haec stands for animum vincere, &c. 3. Nescio quomodo somehow. 4. Et os and look; i. e. as expressive of the emotions of the mind. "Patricius proposed ‘eos' (= tales, such) in place of et os, and Faërnus and Abrami did the same, perhaps independently; Patricius asks what os can mean after he has said praesentem; and the question is pertinent. There is no connection between os and what follows, but there is a connection between mentem sensusque eos and what follows." Long. Et os is defended by Ernesti, Wolf, and Spaling, and, it seems to me, with reason. Cicero's meaning is, that Caesar's desire to preserve so much of the republic as had escaped the fortunes of war was depicted on his countenance, and that his belief of the existence of this desire was a result of what he saw (cernimus) in his face. Translate ut so that. - 5. Illa auctoritas = ille vir maximae auctoritatis. The abstract for the concrete. Johnson.

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CH. IV. 1. C. Marcelli. Cousin of M. Marcellus. See Introd. - 2. Ad paucos. M. Marcellus, C. Marcellus, his cousin, and M. Marcellus, son of the latter, were the only surviving mem782 bers, so far as is known, of the Marcellus family. - 3. Gratulationibus supplicationes, days of rejoicing, thanksgivings. See Table of Caesar's Life. 4. Idem at the same time. 5. Et nulla. A good deal has been written on this passage. Baiter must have misunderstood the sense when he omitted nulla. Klotz

maintains nulla, and explains it correctly. Cicero says, "This is so great that no time will destroy thy trophies and memorials; for there is no work of man's hands which age will not destroy, — but this act of thy justice and mercy will daily flourish more." Undoubtedly the writer meant to say this, but whether he has said it well is another matter. The whole chapter is a poor piece of rhetoric. Klotz prefers the reading florescit. Long. 6. Quum remisisti. The idea is best expressed by in with a participle: in giving up, &c. — 7. Ea . ... erat adepta; i. e. the power and means of punishment.

CH. V. 1. Fato

nescio quo by some fate or other. V. Epp. Cic. III. n. 35. - 2. Tenemur = we are subject to, liable to. 3. Scelere certe from crime at least; i. e. inten

tional wrong.
- 4. Videtis, non.
a comma after videtis instead of a

Following Baiter, I have put period. the usual punctuation:

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belli atque armorum below. 6. Socia in favor of war. A. & S. 7 213; H. 399. 7. Hominem. The man emphatically: Pom8. Privato officio from a sense of private duty. In hoc ordine; i. e. in the senate. 10. Integra re= before 783 the war broke out. H. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7, (a).— 11. Statim ; i. e. immediately upon their application. 12. Ceteris:

Sc. vero or autem.

CH. VI. 1. Hujus — rei ; i. e. his desire for peace. 2. Certorum quorundam. L. Lentulus, L. Domitius Aenobarbus, &c. 3. Alterius vero partis: sc. Pompeianae. Partis limits victoriam, being placed at the beginning for the sake of emphasis. 4. Otiosis the neutral. 5. Contulisse to have referred. — 6. Bono = quality, virtue: sc. clementiae et sapientiae. 7. Commodata lent. Why is the preposition a ex- 784 pressed before virtute and fortuna? - 8. Specie. . . . publicae with some show of (regard for) the commonweal.

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CH. VII. 1. Atrocissimam. A suspicio is only atrox, because of the matter to which the suspicio refers. He means suspicion of a most abominable crime." Patricius asks if we can say providere suspicionem. Providenda seems to refer by implication to the matter about which the suspicion exists. Long. 2. Nec nec. A. & S. 277, R. 5, (a). 8. Unius. H. 397, 3. A. & S. 205, R. 13, (a). — 4. Pendere: sc. vitam. - 5. Dumtaxat at least. - 6. Motus = changes. CH. VIII. 1. Fides libidines 2. Omnia .. sunt

ness.

....

credit acts of lawlessall those things which have already fallen to decay and perished (i. e. have become useless) must be secured by rigorous laws. Bullions. - 3. Non fuit recusandum It must not be denied. - 4. Sapientissimam = most philosophic, referring to the philosophy of the stoics. So doctorum hominum · prudentiam and esse sapiens below. — 5. Audirem I would listen to, assent to.

CH. IX. 1. Hic actus this act; i. e. of the drama of 786 life. 2. Dicito. H. 534, II. A. & S. 267, (2).

3. Immortali

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786 dicates emphasis. — 8. Requirent I will seek in vain for. - 9.
Ut illud — videatur so that the former may seem; i. e. and
the consequence will be that the former will seem to have been the
work of fate. 10. Haud .. . . incorruptius perhaps more
justly. Haud scio an, like nescio an (V. in Cat. IV. 5, n. 3), denotes
uncertainty, but with an inclination towards an affirmative. — 11.
Cupiditate
passion, party zeal. 12. Ad te- non perti-
nebit. These words (lit. will not extend to you) contain by impli
cation the assertion of the mortality of the whole man. Long.
CH. X. 1. Diversae distractae different opposite.
7872. Obscuritas. The obscuritas is the difficulty of knowing
what to do, because there were two great chiefs opposed to one an-
other. Long. 3. Vicit . . . . inflammaret. This form of the
subjunctive requires a careful handling. The predicate is vicit. The
expression may be an abbreviation of the form is qui vicit non ejus-
modi est qui . . . . inflammaret, but it is said more emphatically in the
form vicit is, &c.: the conqueror is not a man to let his hatred be
inflamed by success, but to mollify it by his natural goodness of dis-
position. Long. 4. Ab aliis ab aliis =
by some; i. e.
voluntarily from others; i. e. who continued to hold out against
Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia. - 5. Nisi te — salvo et =
manente. K. 100, R. 4. A. & S. 257, R. 10; 274, R. 5, (c). —
6. Haec salva. Haec is everything, all that we possess. It is
a common use of haec. Long.

....

CH. XI. 1. Sed ut, &c. He returns to the subject, which has been interrupted by chapters 7-10. Gratias agere, lit. to act thanks, means to express or return thanks: while gratias habere, lit. to have thanks or gratitude, means to be or to feel thankful. 2. Stantibus. Senators stood when they spoke. A mere assent to another's views might be made sitting. 3. A.. volunt by me at least they wish the speaking to be done. - 4. Et . . . . intelligo and I understand that this is done (i. e. the selection of me to make the speech of thanks), because it is fitting that it should be done, since it is M. Marcellus who has been restored, &c.; i. e. the reason assigned by Cicero for their wishing him to make the speech is not his superior eloquence, but his more intimate connection with

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solicitude, anxiety, (and) effort I have shown, so long as there was 787 doubt respecting his safety, assuredly at this time, having been freed from great anxieties, troubles, and sorrows, I ought to show (it). I have chosen to translate this intricate passage literally, retaining the order of the text, because the idea and force of the original are in this way, it seems to me, most clearly presented. — 6. Tamen. 788 The correlative idea is expressed by the clause me.... conservato.

ORATIO PRO Q. LIGARIO.

INTRODUCTION.

Q. LIGARIUS was the legatus of C. Considius, the governor of 789 Africa, before the commencement of the civil war. Considius quitted Africa at the close of B. C. 50, or the beginning of the following year, leaving Q. Ligarius in charge of the province (c. 1). When the war began by Caesar crossing the Rubicon with his troops, the Pompeian party, which was strong in Africa, pressed Ligarius to put himself at their head; but he refused (c. 1). In the mean time P. Attius Varus, a former governor of Africa, who had fled to that province after being deserted by his troops at Auximum in Picenum, gladly accepted the proposals of the Provinciales of Africa, raised two legions there, and assumed the command. L. Aelius Tubero was now sent with authority from the senate to take possession of the government of Africa, but when he appeared before the harbor of Utica with his ships, Varus would not allow him to enter the town, nor even to land his son Quintus Tubero, who was sick, nor to take in water. Pomponius says that Q. Ligarius, who had the care of the sea-coast of the province, executed Varus' orders. The father and son went to join Pompeius in Macedonia (c. 9), and after his defeat they submitted to Caesar and were pardoned. Q. Ligarius stayed in Africa, where the party of Pompeius after his death made an obstinate resistance. After the battle of Thapsus, B. C. 46, in which the Pompeians of Africa were defeated,

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789 himself, who had an audience with the dictator on the 23d of September, B. C. 46, for the purpose. Though Caesar did not expressly pardon Ligarius on this occasion, Cicero conjectured that he was well inclined to do it. Meantime, a public accusation was brought against Ligarius by Q. Aelius Tubero, the son of L. Tubero, whom Ligarius had united with Varus in preventing from landing in Africa. He was accused on account of his conduct in Africa, and his connection with the enemies of the dictator. The case was pleaded before Caesar himself in the forum. Cicero defended Ligarius in the following speech, which was delivered in B. C. 46, and before Caesar set out to Spain on his last campaign. Ligarius was pardoned, and like many others he repaid Caesar's generosity by becoming one of his assassins. It was Caesar's fortune to get the victory over all his enemies, and to perish by the hands of those whom he thought that he had made his friends. Ligarius himself got his deserts; for Appian speaks of two brothers of the name of Ligarius, who perished in the proscription of the triumvirs in B. C. 43, and in the following chapter he mentions a third Ligarius, who met with the same fate. Now, as Cicero expressly mentions three brothers of this name (Pro Lig. 12), Q. Ligarius must have been one of those who were put to death on this occasion.

This speech was circulated in writing by the copies which Atticus's Librarii made of it, and was much admired. It is in its kind a perfect composition.

CH. I. 1. Novum crimen. Strongly ironical; and the irony continues throughout the oration, whenever Tubero is spoken of. — 2. Propinquus. What the relationship was is uncertain; but it has been conjectured, from a statement of the Scholiast on this oration, that L. Tubero, the father of Q. Tubero, married Cicero's first cousin. - 3. Pansa. C. Vibius Pansa, consul.B. C. 43, with A. Hirtius. - 4. Abuterer to take advantage of. 5. Ut.... esset = that this (ignoratione.... abuterer) was no longer in my power. 6. Conferenda est must be directed.

7. Parte;

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