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temporary governor of the province, because the people wished it. 789 When a governor left his province before the arrival of his successor, it was usual for him to give the temporary administration to the Quaestor, as Cicero says in several letters. - 12. Cupiditate. 790 See pro Marc. IX. n. 11. 13. Timore; i. e. of Caesar. - 14. Salutis — studii. These words limit ducem. The meaning is, they (cives et socii) first sought a protector, afterwards also a party leader. 15. Varus was a zealous partisan of Pompey in the civil war.

16. Praetor ; i. e. propraetor, but when a man had been a praetor, and had got a province, it was usual to call him praetor still. — 17. Uticam. The chief town of the province of Africa after the destruction of Carthage, and situated on the sea, about 27 miles north of it. 18. Consilio by authority, decree. - 19. Cuperet. K. 110, 3, b), 5). A. & S. 264, 8, (1).

CA. II. 1. Necessitatem honestam. Because in obedience to the command of Considius and the wishes of the people., — 2. Est, quod restitit is that of his remaining : more lit. is that which he remained. - 3. Hic under these circumstances.

4. Literis monumentisque is letters and memorials of any kind. 5. defendit maintains.

Ch. III. 1. Gesto ; i. e. after Pompey had been driven from 791 Italy, 2. Literas. This is the letter referred to in Epistola XXX, of this volume. V. n. 1, p. 609. — 3. quo SOS .... tenui from whom I held the laurelled fasces which had been granted (i. e. by the senate). Cicero had carried on, in B. C. 51, a successful war in Cilicia against the Parthians; his soldiers had saluted him with the title of imperator, and the senate had granted him the honor of a triumph. As, however, the disturbances of the time did not allow him to celebrate the triumph, Cicero retained these fasces laureati, which belonged to an imperator, and Caesar allowed him to do so. Schmitz. — 4. Dubitem. H. 517, I. ; 519. A. & S. 264, 8, (1). The text is that of Baiter. If the student will bear in mind that there is here the same vein of irony

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Page 791 CH. IV. 1. Egimas. V. III. n. 9. — 2. Nonnihil – etiam tuam desidero in some degree

yours too — I miss. – 792 3. Agi that the case should be managed. — 4. Vim = force,

object. 5. Externi .... barbarorum this foreign character of thine, (like that) of either the fickle Greeks or savage barbarians, is accustomed to be pushed by hatred even to (the spilling of) blood. The reading in the text is that of Klotz, which seems to me preferable, on the whole, to either of the other readings in this passage. The phrase levium .... barbarorum may be considered as a sort of supplementary explanation, limiting mores. 6. Sit: sc. id agis. – 7. Dictatorem. L. Sulla. — 8. Praemiis. The reward for killing a proscribed person was two talents. — 9. Crudelitas ; i. e. of those who had been rewarded by Sulla for murdering proscribed persons.

10. Annis. This occurred seventeen years afterwards, when Caesar was judex questionis de sicaris.

Ch. V. 1. Generis — virtutis. H. 397, 2. A. & S. 211, R. 10.

2. Artium. V. pro Archia, I. n. 21. 3. Poeña; i. e. the exile at Utica. 4. Domi. Some omit domi, but it may be

retained, as opposed to exilio, in the sense of “at home"; i. e, at 793 Rome. 5. Domi; i. e. Caesar's. — 6. Petimus. It has been

proposed to change petimus into petiimus, because this speech was made in the forum. But Halm observes that the remark is general, and expresses only the mode of entreaty, not the time. – 7. Per te

obtines you possess naturally: lit. through yourself; i. e. without the interposition of others. 8. Quum. Causal.

CH. VI. 1. Aditus et postulatio approach (to the case) and preliminary application to the praetor. Aditus is a technical word. It means permission to approach a person, generally one in authority; and postulatio has its ordinary technical use, which is to

ask the praetor for permission to commence proceedings against a 794 person.” – 2. Cupiditatem

party spirit. 3. Parricidii = treason. 4. Contumeliam. The insult consisted in me calling him from Gaul before his command had expired, requiring

him

Page vobis = 0. what things you boast in yourselves ; i. e. obedience to 794 the senate. - 3. Tuberonis sors. The name of L. Tubero with other names was thrown into the urna. The sortes were shaken and then drawn out by the hand to determine who should have the office.

- 4. Excusare to excuse himself, to decline. 5. Domi is opposed to militiae. 6. Affines. V. I. n. 2. – 7. Quorum 795 ....cansa =

who had espoused the same cause. 8. Occupatam ; i. e. by Varus. 9. Hinc; i. e. from the fact that Africa was occupied by Varus before Tubero arrived. 10. Illum. The readings are various. Long says Abrami saw the meaning: "For, if the wish is a crime, it is no less a crime for you to have wished to have possession of the province, than for any other man to have preferred keeping it himself.” . 11. Arcem the strength; i. e. the strongest, as possessing the greatest resources, and perhaps also as having once been Rome's most formidable rival. – 12. Quoquo .... habet however that may be. 13. Recepti. See Introd. — 14. Essetis : sc. recepti.

CH. VIII. 1. Huic victoriae; i. e. of Pharsalus in B. C. 48. — 2. Rex; i. e. Juba, king of Numidia, whose father Hiempsat Cn. Pompey had established as king in B. C. 81. He was for this, and other reasons, an old friend of Pompey; whence he is here called inimicus huic causae ; i. e. Caesari. 3. Conventus. This term is applied to certain bodies of Roman citizens living in a province, forming a sort of corporation, and representing the Roman people in their district or town. Long says it means here the towns in which there were many Romans and perhaps others, who were rich and on Pompeius' side. - 4. Quid .... fuistis. A direct question : otherwise we should have the subj. 5. Gloriemini.' H. 496, 1. A. & S. 262, R. 4.

Ch. IX. 1. Constantiam. The whole passage down to abhorrebant is ironical. — 2. Quotus quisque how few. 3. Crudelitate. Varus would not allow him even to land his son, though he was sick. See Introd. – 4. Animi - viri : sc. est.

Page 796 For the use of an, see Ec. Cic. XXV. n. 12, and Caes. I. 47, n. 12.

The readings in this place are various, and commentators have been not a little perplexed by it. Some bave supposed that something has been lost after bellis ; and this is indicated in the text by the asterisks. Others have thought the passage from bellis to omnes inquam parenthetical. 12. Locum. The camp of Pompeius, as Manutius explains it. Halm suggests that locus may have the figurative sense, “ you had got into such a position.” — 13. Illi victoriae is ambiguous; either Caesar's victory, or your own anticipated vic

tory over Caesar. Schmitz. I prefer the latter. 797 Ch. X. 1. Qui – putetis in supposing. 2. Ad unam

summam = to the single point, solely. – 3. Ratio honorum. Caesar often appeared as an orator while he was pursuing the usual road to the honores, which Cicero calls the ratio honorum tuorum. Quintilian says that if C. Caesar had given all bis time to the Forum, no other Roman could have been named as a match for Cicero.

Ch. XI. 1. Vultus. Cicero said at the end of the preceding chapter that Ligarius's hopes did not rest either on this speech or on those who were intimate with Caesar. Here he says that Caesar paid more regard to the reasons which moved those who interceded with him (causas rogantium) than to their persons, or, as he expresses it, their faces. — 2. Itaque = accordingly; i. e. in strict conformity with your regard for true friendship. Long, following Halm, connects itaque with sed tamen in the sense of though yet. This doubtless gives the general sense of the passage, but is no translation of itaque. The same idea in substance is expressed by giving itaque its ordinary meaning. — 3. Beatiores. y. In Cat. II. 9, n. 12.

– 4. Causas = reasons, motives : sc. rogantium, which is expressed in some editions. 5. Hoc; i. e. causas rogantium. Sabinos. Cicero rhetorically speaks of the whole Sabine race, though only a few were present. These men of the highlands were

6.

Page the care of the treasury. T. Ligarius paid to Caesar on this occa. 798 sion the donation for his army sanctioned by the senate, and he did 80 without delay, although the treasury was nearly exhausted. 4. Quaestoribus; i. e. who were less obliging, who did some- 799 thing that Caesar did not like. 5. Nihil .... aliud other object in view. – 6. Utrisque; i. e. the two brothers on one side, and Q. Ligarius, for whom they were entreating. – 7. Fac

nunc idem do now the same. - 8. Homine; i. e. M Marcellus.

had no

ORATIO PRO REGE DEIOTARO.

INTRODUCTION.

DEIOTARUS, tetrarch of Galatia, a country of Asia Minor, was a 800 friend of Pompey, and rendered important services to the Romans in their wars in Asia. Pompey rewarded him by giving him Armenia Minor; and the Roman senate, through the mediation of Pompey, granted him the title of king in B. C. 65. In consequence of these things he was a warm supporter of Pompey and his party, when the war between Pompey and Caesar broke out. After the unfortunate issue of the battle of Pharsalus in B. C. 48, he gave up the cause of the Pompeians, and endeavored by all means to win again the favor of Caesar, which he had enjoyed before the war. He accordingly offered money and troops to Cn. Domitius Calvinus, who had the command in Asia, while Caesar himself was still engaged in the African war (B. C. 47). Meantime Deiotarus himself had to carry on a war; for Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates, and king of Bosporus, had taken from him Armenia Minor. But the war which Diotarus undertook against the invarler, with the assistance of the

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