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At the close of B. C. 45, after Caesar's return from Spain, Castor, the son of Deiotarus's daughter, accused his grandfather of having designed to assassinate Caesar, when he was for three days Deiotarus's guest in Galatia, after the defeat of Pharnaces in Pontus. What Castor's motive was in bringing this accusation is not certainly known; but it probably arose from a quarrel between Deiotarus and his family in respect to his power and kingdom.

The king sent several of his friends to Rome to defend him before Caesar, and among them his slave and physician Phidippus, whom we may assume to have been a Greek. But Castor gained over Phidippus, who gave evidence against the king. The case was heard before Caesar in his house in the month of November (B. C. 45), in the presence of some of his friends. The charge of a design to assassinate Caesar seems very improbable, and Cicero has briefly answered that. But Deiotarus was also charged generally with being hostile to Caesar, and with looking out for his opportunity during the African war, when his accusers declared that he sent aid to Syria to Caecilius Bassus, who was in arms there against Caesar. This part of the accusation is imperfectly answered, and probably it was true. Cicero sent a copy of this speech to his son-in-law Dolabella, He speaks of the case of Deiotarus as of no great importance, and not worth the labor of a carefully written oration. He describes it as a piece of coarse homespun work, like the presents of Deiotarus.

So far as is known, Caesar made no decision. Deiotarus remained in possession of his tetrarchy, but did not recover Armenia Minor in the lifetime of Caesar, who, as Cicero says, always hated Deiotarus. After the murder of Caesar, however, Deiotarus recovered his possession, and took cruel vengeance on the parents of Castor, whom he ordered to be murdered. Castor himself escaped, and after the death of Deiotarus, obtained possession of a part of Galatia.

CH. I. 1. Quum – tum = although yet; the latter being

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and a daughter of Deiotarus. - 9. Adduxerit. H. 517, I.; 519. 800 A. & S. 264, 8, (1). — 10. Commendationem . . . . duxerit. Young men among the Romans were accustomed to seek public consideration and preferment by accusing magistrates and other eminent offenders; and thus they often became a terror to them. Servum. Physicians were generally slaves. - 12. Legatorum. The persons who had been sent to Rome to attend to Deiotarus's defence. The place of slaves was at the feet of their masters. Hence, to draw him away from the feet of the ambassadors was to withdraw him from their service. 13. Fugitivi. Said in contempt, because he had abandoned the cause which he had been sent to defend. 14. Os. His face; i. e. his impudence. 15. Fortunis communibus. Referring to the danger to which every one would be exposed, if slaves were permitted to accuse their masters. 16. De servo quaeri to question a slave. 17. Solu- 801 tus. Opposed to in eculeo.

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CH. II. 1. Illud refers to nam dicere, &c. — 2. Quum .......... recognovi = now that I have thoroughly examined your character. - 3. Arguare. K. 94, R. 6, c). A. & S. 209, R. 7, (a). – 4. Grave a hard matter. 5. Aequiorem more favorable. 6. Loci ipsius insolentia; i. e. Caesar's house. Cicero usually spoke in the forum. 7. Quanta . . . . est as never came on trial. — 8. Acquiesco - I find peace. — 9. Quae = these things; i. e. just mentioned. 10. Actio the pleading. 11. Qui . . . . dixisti. Cf. pro Lig. X. n. 3. — 12. Ad . . . . referre to judge by yourself: lit. to refer to yourself. 13. Spe. 802 The hope of the accusers was based, not on the merits of their cause, but on Caesar's prejudices against Deiotarus. These Cicero endeavors to remove before proceeding to the charge itself.

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CH. III. 1. Affectum... . detrimentis. Caesar had deprived Deiotarus of the tetrarchy of the Trocmi, and of Armenia Minor, which he owed to Pompey. · 2. Te.... cognoverant. The genuineness of these words has been doubted, because of their inconsistency with the conte 3. Non tam .... firmiorem. Long says: "This is not a common form of expression, but a reader, I think, might not discover that there is anything amiss: That right hand of yours, not so much in war and battle as in promises and good faith more secure."" Some would omit tam. 4. Semel; i. e. once for all, once only. 5. Nemo=nullus. This is common.

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802 ordinem; i. e. the senate. 10. Est perturbatus led astray. A eupheuism like lapsus est above. — 11. Nos; i. e. those of us who sided with Pompey.

CH. IV. 1. Nobis imperatoribus. Here in place of pro consulibus he says nobis imperatoribus, for Cicero was ad urbem expecting a triumph for his victories over the mountaineers of Amanus. 803 2. Esse effusam 3. Ad Orientem; = were dispersed. i. e. ad Asiam. – 4. Ulli veri: sc. nuntii. 5. Conditionibus. The terms which Caesar offered to the senate; which were that he would disband his army, if Pompey would do the same. 6. Hominum. The Marcelli, Lentuli, L. Domitius, P. Scipio, and M. Cato. - 7. Tum.... maxima. The allusion may be to the part that Caesar took in his consulship in confirming what Pompeius had done in Asia after the death of Mithridates, and in giving him his daughter Julia. 8. Populi tui. Subjective genitives. A. & S. 211, R. 2. H. 396, I. CH. V. 1. Eum = talem virum.

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had gone far enough in error. – 6. Cn. Domitii; i. e. Cn. Domitius Calvinus. See Introd. 7. Eum. It is not known to whom Cicero refers. — §.

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804 Omnibus. The dative limiting probatissimum.

9. Iterum.

In the Alexandrine war, B. C. and 47.- 10. Tertio. In the African war, B. C. 46. 11. Auctionibus factis having held a public auction. 12. Sceleris. H. 401. A. & S. 211, R. 8, (3). 13. Importunitatis barbarity. 14. Ferocitatis audacity. 15. In - in the case of, in respect to. Quonam ille modo cum distractus esset: would have been at variance with.

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CH. VI. 1. At. An objection. 2. Tectior tious. 3. Inquit: sc. the accuser. 4. Luceium. A fortified place near to, but distinct from, the palace (domum). Hence visitors to the palace might, in a general way, be said to come to the castle. In c. 7, Luceium means the castle proper. Long thinks there is some error here or in c. 7. 5. Balneo. It was custo mary to bathe before taking a meal. 805 dinner. 7. Phidippum

6. Accumberes; i, e. at esse corruptum. The acc.

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enemy.

Schmitz, to accuse a person of having hired a physician to poison an 805 9. Non credidit — noluit. If he did not trust him in the less, of course he would not in the greater. 10. At.... contexitur = but how cleverly is the charge put together. 11. Inspicere; i. e. at the presents.

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CH. VII. 1. Exercitum. Cicero in derision calls the band of assassins, alleged to have been placed in ambush to murder Caesar, an army. 2. Itaque = et ita. 3. Comiter. .. fuisses. The construction of sum with an adverb is mostly confined to familiar language. 4. Isti ivisti, from eo. - 5. Attalus III., king of Pergamus, who made the Roman people the heir of his kingdom in B. C. 133. - 6. Africanum; i. e. P. Scipio Africanus Minor, the destroyer of Numantia in Spain in B. C. 133. 7. Praein person. - 8. Quid: sc. factum est. 9. Luceium. 806 V. VI. n. 4. 10. Sed.... est but still the facts furnish matter for a criminal charge: more lit. the fact has been brought forward as an accusation. Ironical. — 11. Vomere. To get rid of his dinner. This was a frequent practice with the ancients. — 12. In cubiculo: sc. vomere. 13. Habes you have (the charges), there they are. You can judge of their importance. 14. Is. Phidippus. 15. Qui.... indicare who could inform against him (Deiotarus) in his absence.

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CH. VIII. 1. Cetera = ceteris. 2. Antea. Before Caesar had deprived him of a part of his kingdom. 3. At misit. The accuser says this. 4. Nescio quem. An expression of contempt. The person referred to is Q. Caecilius Bassus, a Roman eques and a partisan of Pompey, who spread a report that Caesar had been defeated in Africa, and there took up arms against Sex. Julius Caesar, whom C. Caesar had set over Syria, the government of which he assumed and held till after the death of C. Caesar. 5. Addit: sc. the accuser. 6. Equites.... misisse; i. e. to aid Caesar against Pharnaces. - 7. Ad in comparison with. 8. Ait. The accuser. 9. Servum. Slaves were not allowed by the Romans to serve as soldiers in the infantry, and much less in cavalry.

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CH. IX. 1. Alieno.... quomodo. The former of the charges mentioned in the beginning of c. 8. 2. Credo. Ironical. - 3. Ei. Cn. Domitius Calvinus. – 4. Victori; i. e. in Egypt. - 5. Rumores. These rumors encouraged Caecilius. Racene ta

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807 boldness and skill. — 6. Auctionatus sit: sc. bona.

I.; 519. A. & S. 264, 8. guage of the accuser. - 8. Domitium. Cn. Domitius Calvinus left Asia to join Caesar in the African war, and there was a false report that he had perished at sea. Long. — 9. Qui. H. 187, 1. A. & 808 S. 136, R. 1. — 10. Furcifer; i. e. Phidippus. 11. Res rationesque = commercial transactions. 12. Ea existimatione

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(a man) of such reputation.

CH. X. 1. Ut — uteretur = utendi : depending on studüs. — 2. Adolescens. Castor, who in B. C. 50 was with Cicero in the war against the Cilician mountaineers, and who, according to the statement here made, was Cicero's fellow-soldier in Greece under Pompey. - 3. Pater. Saocondarius. - 4. Quos .... solebat = what crowds he was wont to collect. 5. Exercitu. Pompey's army. – 6. Impunitatem. Caesar had pardoned Castor. — 7. Vos vestra. Castor and his father.

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CH. XI. 1. Sint. An admission that there was enmity between the families of Deiotarus and Castor. - 2. Capitis arcessere= to bring a capital charge. H. 410, 5, 1). A. & S. 217, R. 3, (a). – 3. Adeone (ought it to be allowed) to such a degree: sc. concedit debet. 4. A tanta auctoritate'; i. e. a Caesare. — 5. Id .... est; i. e. slaves. - 6. Fit. . . . dominatu the slave becomes the master and the master the slave. — 7. Cn. Domitius. Cn. Domitius Aenobarbus: consul B. C. 96, censor B. C. 92, tribune of the people B. C. 104. - 8. M. Scaurum. The censors had elected him six times to the dignity of princeps senatus, which Cicero here varies by calling him principem civitatis. — 9. In judicium populi ; i. e. a court in which the people were the judges. — 10. At.... vobis. It is only a way of saying, You have corrupted him more than once; but he puts it in the form of an objection in some person's mouth, and then shows that it was more than once. — 11. Legatos: i. e. of Deiotarus. 12. Cn. Domitium. Cn.

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