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believed that no inconsiderable advantage may be derived from consulting two so different in many respects as are these, which could not be gained from the use of one. They will be found constantly to explain and illustrate each other, and thus, by throwing light upon the classic page, to afford both teacher and pupil that kind of help which they most need.

The introduction of synonyms, to any considerable extent, into a work so elementary as this, is a feature almost, if not wholly new; and it is hoped that it may not prove unacceptable to those of my fellow-teachers especially, who are engaged in preparing young men for college. The practice of discriminating between words whose general meanings are the same, or similar, cannot fail to have a most salutary influence upon mental development and accurate scholarship. Nearly all of this portion of the notes has been taken, without material alteration, from Döderlein's Hand-Book of Latin Synonyms. Questions on these extracts have been introduced among the references to intimate that they should be learned and recited by the pupil ; and to facilitate reviewing, and thereby secure thoroughness here, these questions are repeated throughout the work.

In the preparation of the notes, my aim has been to do neither too much nor too little ; to render such assistance, and such only, as seemed to be necessary to enable the pupil, by the full exercise of his own powers, to master his task. I have not hesitated to translate, where translation was really needed, but have, in general, relied more upon the various other means of elucidating the meaning of the text, than upon this. In cases of a free translation of idiomatic expressions, a strictly literal, or more literal translation is usually added.

reason, he has thought it best, in making up the vocabulary, to omit entirely the orations. For all the rest of the text, it is hoped that it will be found amply sufficient.

In regard to the text, my purpose has been to follow the latest and best recensions : the Caesar is chiefly that of Koch ; the Sallust

, that of Dietsch ; the Cicero, that of the second edition of Orelli. Other excellent editions of these classics have been constantly consulted, and, in some cases, followed. The orthography is, for the most part

, that of the editions of Caesar, Sallust

, and Cicero, from which the text has been chiefly taken. This will account for the want of uniformity in the spelling of a few words.

As to the quantity of Latin prose necessary for entering college, there is, and will

, doubtless, continue to be, some difference of opinion. Our colleges are not all uniform in their requirements. The end aimed at by all is, however, very much the same; viz., a sufficient knowledge of the Latin language to enable the student to pursue with ease and profit the college

The experience of some twenty years in this department of teaching and the preparation of some hundreds

young men for college, have convinced me that this end can be most successfully accomplished by taking the pupil over so much surface only as can be thoroughly studied. Any other course has a tendency not only to defeat this particular end, but also

, by inducing loose and superficial habits of thought and study, to unfit the mind for success in all the other departments

These are substantially the views by which I have been governed in determining the quantity of text in

present volume. I think it will be found not only ample in

classical course.

of

of a college course.

the itself hard

year succeeding his consulship and ending with the year of his death. Besides throwing much light upon the orations and affording to the pupil a pleasing and interesting variety of readingmatter, these letters reveal more of the heart and true character of Rome's greatest orator, philosopher, and scholar, than any number of his orations could possibly do. These letters have been arranged in chronological order, and there has been prefixed to those of each year a brief history in Latin of the principal events of that year. This will aid very much in understanding many of the allusions in the text. I hope this slight departure from the old beaten track may prove acceptable to both teachers and scholars.

In conclusion, I wish to say that very little is claimed on the score of originality. Mine has been the far humbler task to condense and arrange the materials which have been produced by others. I have had constantly before me the various editions of Caesar, Sallust, and Cicero, which are in common use in the schools of this country, and, in making the notes, have drawn freely from these and all other sources within my reach whatever was suited to my purpose.

In
many

instances credit has been given; and it would have been agreeable to my views and feelings always to do this; but it was in some cases very inconvenient, and in others quite impossible. A large portion of the notes on Cicero's letters, and all of the Roman history which is placed at the beginning of each of the years covered by these letters, have been taken without much alteration from a selection of Cicero's letters by T. K. Arnold, A. M. Besides my indebtedness in general to those who have preceded me in this

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PRE FACE

TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

A DESIRE has been expressed by many teachers, that the Vocabulary might be made to cover the Orations, as well as the other portions of the text, so that the whole volume might be studied without the aid of a Lexicon.

To gratify this desire, an Appendix has been added at the end of the volume, containing all the words of the text which are not found in the Vocabulary.

PREFACE

TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION.

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An extensive correspondence with classical teachers of high rank in different parts of the country has resulted in a New Edition of the Preparatory Latin Prose Book, containing several additions and changes, which, it is hoped, may be regarded as improvements.

At the suggestion of W. J. Rolfe, A. M., Principal of the High School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and many other teachers, who discard the Latin Reader because it is not clas sical Latin, ten pages of short and easy extracts from the first four books of Caesar have been added at the beginning. It is believed that the thorough mastery of these extracts and of the portions of the Grammar referred to in them will render the transition from the Latin Grammar or Latin Lessons to the portions of the book which follow sufficiently gradual and

easy.

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