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eight thousand slaves are enlisted by the Romans; they refuse to ran-
som the captives; they go out in a body to meet Varro, and thank him
for not having despaired of the commonwealth.......
The Campanians revolt to Hannibal. Mago is sent to Carthage to an-
nounce the victory of Cannæ. Hanno advises the Carthaginian Sen-
ate to make peace with the Romans, but is overborne by the Barcine
faction. Claudius Marcellus the prætor defeats Hannibal at Nola.
Hannibal's army is enervated in mind and body by luxurious living at
Capua. Casilinum is besieged by the Carthaginians, and the inhabit-
ants reduced to the last extremity of famine. A hundred and ninety-
seven Senators elected from the equestrian order. Lucius Postumius
is, with his army, cut off by the Gauls. Cneius and Publius Scipio de-
feat Hasdrubal in Spain, and gain possession of that country. The
remains of the army defeated at Cannæ are sent off to Sicily, there
to remain until the termination of the war. An alliance is formed
between Philip, king of Macedon, and Hannibal. Sempronius Grac-
chus defeats the Campanians. Successes of Titus Manlius in Sardinia:
he takes Hasdrubal the general, Mago, and Hanno prisoners. Clau-
dius Marcellus again defeats the army of Hannibal at Nola, and the
hopes of the Romans are revived as to the results of the war....... 148
Hieronymus, king of Syracuse, whose grandfather Hiero had been a
faithful ally of Rome, revolts to the Carthaginians, and for his tyranny
is put to death by his subjects. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, the
proconsul, defeats the Carthaginians under Hanno at Beneventum,
chiefly by the services of the slaves in his army, whom he subsequently
liberated. Claudius Marcellus, the consul, besieges Syracuse. War
is declared against Philip, king of Macedon; he is routed by night at
Apollonia, and retreats into Macedonia. This war is intrusted to Va-
lerius, the prætor. Operations of the Scipios against the Carthaginians
in Spain. Syphax, king of the Numidians, is received into alliance by
the Romans, and is defeated by Masinissa, king of the Massillians, who
fought on the side of the Carthaginians. The Celtiberians joined the
Romans, and their troops having been taken into pay, mercenary sol-
diers for the first time served in a Roman camp...............
Publius Cornelius Scipio, afterwards called Africanus, elected ædile be-
fore he had attained the age required by the law. The citadel of Ta-
rentum, in which the Roman garrison had taken refuge, betrayed to
Hannibal. Games instituted in honor of Apollo, called Apollinarian.
Quintus Fulvius and Appius Claudius, consuls, defeat Hanno the Car-
thaginian general. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus betrayed by a Lu-
canian to Mago, and slain. Centenius Penula, who had been a cen-
turion, asks the Senate for the command of an army, promising to en-
gage and vanquish Hannibal; is cut off with eight thousand men.
Cneius Fulvius engages Hannibal; and is beaten, with the loss of six-
teen thousand men slain; he himself escapes with only two hundred
horsemen. Quintus Fulvius and Appius Claudius, consuls, lay siege
to Capua. Syracuse taken by Claudius Marcellus after a siege of
is killed while intently occupied on some figures which he had drawn
in the sand. Publius and Cornelius Scipio, after having performed
many eminent services in Spain, are slain, together with nearly the
whole of their armies, eight years after their arrival in that country;
and the possession of that province would have been entirely lost, but
for the valor and activity of Lucius Marcus, a Roman knight, who,
collecting the scattered remains of the vanquished armies, utterly de-
feats the enemy; storming their two camps, killing thirty-seven thou-
sand of them, and taking eighteen hundred together with an immense
Hannibal encamps on the banks of the Anio, within three miles of Rome.
Attended by two thousand horsemen, he advances close to the Colline
gate to take a view of the walls and situation of the city. On two
successive days the hostile armies are hindered from engaging by the
severity of the weather. Capua taken by Quintus Fulvius and Appius
Claudius; the chief nobles die, voluntarily, by poison. Quintus Ful-
vius, having condemned the principal Senators to death, at the moment
they are actually tied to the stakes receives dispatches from Rome,
commanding him to spare their lives, which he postpones reading until
the sentence is executed. Publius Scipio, offering himself for the serv-
ice, is sent to command in Spain; takes New Carthage in one day.
Successes in Sicily. Treaty of friendship with the Etolians. War
with Philip, king of Macedonia, and the Acarnanians..
Cneius Fulvius, proconsul, defeated by Hannibal and slain; the consul
Claudius Marcellus engages him with better success. Hannibal, raising
his camp, retires; Marcellus pursues, and forces him to an engagement.
They fight twice; in the first battle, Hannibal gains the advantage; in
the second, Marcellus. Tarentum betrayed to Fabius Maximus, the
consul. Scipio engages with Hasdrubal, the son of Hamilcar, at Bæ-
tula, in Spain, and defeats him. Among other prisoners, a youth of
royal race and exquisite beauty is taken; Scipio sets him free, and
sends him, enriched with magnificent presents, to his uncle Masinissa.
Marcellus and Quintus Crispinus, consuls, drawn into an ambuscade by
Hannibal; Marcellus is slain, Crispinus escapes. Operations by Pub-
lius Sulpicius, prætor, against Philip and the Achæans. A census held;
the number of citizens found to amount to one hundred and thirty-
seven thousand one hundred and eight: from which it appears how
great a loss they had sustained by the number of unsuccessful battles
they had of late been engaged in. Hasdrubal, who had crossed the
Alps with a reinforcement for Hannibal, defeated by the consuls, Mar-
cus Livius and Claudius Nero, and slain; with him fell fifty-six thou-
Successful operations against the Carthaginians in Spain, under Silanus,
Scipio's lieutenant, and L. Scipio, his brother; of Sulpicius and At-
talus, against Philip, king of Macedonia. Scipio finally vanquishes
the Carthaginians in Spain, and reduces that whole country; passes
over into Africa, forms an alliance with Syphax, king of Numidia;
represses and punishes a mutiny of a part of his army; concludes a
treaty of friendship with Masinissa; returns to Rome, and is elected
consul; solicits Africa for his province, which is opposed by Quintus
Fabius Maximus; is appointed governor of Sicily, with permission to
In Spain, Mandonius and Indibilis, reviving hostilities, are finally sub-
dued. Scipio goes over from Syracuse to Locri; dislodges the Car-
thaginian general; repulses Hannibal, and recovers that city. Peace
made with Philip. The Idæan Mother brought to Rome from Phrygia;
received by Publius Scipio Nasica, judged by the Senate the best man
in the state. Scipio passes over into Africa. Syphax, having married
a daughter of Hasdrubal, renounces his alliance with Scipio. Masi-
nissa, who had been expelled his kingdom by Syphax, joins Scipio with
two hundred horsemen; they defeat a large army commanded by Han-
no. Hasdrubal and Syphax approach with a most numerous force.
Scipio raises the siege of Utica, and fortifies a post for the winter.
The consul Sempronius gets the better of Hannibal in a battle near
Croton. Dispute between Marcus Livius and Claudius Nero, cen-
Scipio, aided by Masinissa, defeats the Carthaginians, Syphax and Has-
drubal, in several battles. Syphax taken by Lælius and Masinissa.
Masinissa espouses Sophonisba, the wife of Syphax, Hasdrubal's daugh-
ter; being reproved by Scipio, he sends her poison, with which she puts
an end to her life. The Carthaginians, reduced to great extremity by
Scipio's repeated victories, call Hannibal home from Italy; he holds
a conference with Scipio on the subject of peace, and is again defeated
by him in battle. The Carthaginians sue for peace, which is granted
them. Masinissa reinstated in his kingdom. Scipio returns to Rome;
his splendid triumph; is surnamed Africanus..
THE HISTORY OF ROME.
Origin of the second Punic war. Hannibal's character. In violation of a treaty, he passes the Iberus. Besieges Saguntum, and at length takes it. The Romans send ambassadors to Carthage; declare war. Hannibal crosses the Pyrenees; makes his way through Gaul; then crosses the Alps; defeats the Romans at the Ticinus. The Romans again defeated at the Trebia. Cneius Cornelius Scipio defeats the Carthaginians in Spain, and takes Hanno, their general, prisoner.
1. I MAY be permitted to premise at this division of my work, what most historians have professed at the beginning of their whole undertaking; that I am about to relate the most memorable of all wars that were ever waged: the war which the Carthaginians, under the conduct of Hannibal, maintained with the Roman people. For never did any states and nations more efficient in their resources engage in contest, nor had they themselves at any other period so great a degree of power and energy. They brought into action, too, no arts of war unknown to each other, but those which had been tried in the first Punic war; and so various was the fortune of the conflict, and so doubtful the victory, that they who conquered were more exposed to danger. The hatred with which they fought also was almost greater than their resources; the Romans being indignant that the conquered aggressively took up arms against their victors; the Carthaginians, because they considered that in their subjection it had been lorded over them with haughtiness and avarice. There is besides a story, that Hannibal, when about nine years old, while 1 Thucydides seems to be specially referred to
he boyishly coaxed his father Hamilcar that he might be taken to Spain (at the time when the African war was completed, and he was employed in sacrificing previously to transporting his army thither), was conducted to the altar, and, having laid his hand on the offerings, was bound by an oath to prove himself, as soon as he could, an enemy to the Roman people. The loss of Sicily and Sardinia grieved the high spirit of Hamilcar: for he deemed that Sicily had been given up through a premature despair of their affairs, and that Sardinia, during the disturbances in Africa, had been treacherously taken by the Romans, while, in addition, the payment of a tribute had been imposed.
2. Being disturbed with these anxieties, he so conducted himself for five years in the African war, which commenced shortly after the peace with Rome, and then through nine years employed in augmenting the Carthaginian empire in Spain, that it was obvious that he was revolving in his mind a greater war than he was then engaged in; and that if he had lived longer, the Carthaginians under Hamilcar would have carried the war into Italy, which, under the command of Hannibal, they afterwards did. The timely death of Hamilcar and the youth of Hannibal occasioned its delay. Hasdrubal, intervening between the father and the son, held the command for about eight years. He was first endeared to Hamilcar, as they say, on account of his youthful beauty, and then adopted by him, when advanced in age, as his son-in-law, on account of his eminent abilities; and, because he was his son-in-law, he obtained the supreme authority, against the wishes of the nobles, by the influence of the Barcine faction,' which was very powerful with the military and the populace. Prosecuting his designs rather by stratagem than force, by entertaining the princes, and by means of the friendship of their leaders gaining the favor of unknown nations, he aggrandized the Carthaginian power more than by arms and battles. Yet peace proved no greater security to himself. A barbarian, in resentment of his master's having been put to
1 The Barcine faction derived its name from Hamilcar, who was surnamed Barca. Hanno appears to have been at the head of the opposite party.