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To give our young readers some preparatory information about certain frequently-recurring peculiarities of Sallust's style, we may remark that the omission of the personal pronoun in the construction of the accusative with the infinitive, as well as the omission of the auxiliary verb est, and the frequent use of the infinitive instead of a dependent clause — for example, hortatur dicere, res postulat exponere, conjuravere patriam incendere, and many similar expressions — arise from his desire to be brief and concise. Among his antiquated forms of words, we may mention die for diei, the singular plerusque, quīs for quibus, senati for senatus ; dicundi, legundi, &c. for dicendi, legendi ; intellego for intelligo, forem for essem, fuere for fuerunt; the use of the past participles of deponent verbs in a passive sense-as adeptus, interpretatus. Antiquated words, or words used in an antiquated sense, are — - supplicium for preces, scilicet for scire licet ; antiquated expressions are --fugam facere for fugere, habere vitam for agere vitam, and other phrases with habere. The frequent use of mortales for homines, aevum for aetas, and subigere for cogere, gives to his style somewhat of a poetical colouring. As far as grammatical construction is concerned, there is a tendency to archaisms in the use of quippe qui with the indicative; in the frequent application of the indicative in subordinate sentences in the oratio obliqua; and in some other points which we shall explain in short notes to the passages where they occur. An intentional disturbance of rhetorical symmetry is perceptible in the change of corresponding particles;-for example, instead of alii in the expression alii-alii, we find pars or partim; instead of modo in the expression modo-modo, we find interdum, and similar variations. But all these differences from the ordinary language contain in themselves sufficient grounds of explanation and excuse, and are by no means so frequent as to render the language of Sallust unworthy of the merited reputation of being classical.

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C. SALLUSTII CRISPI

BELLUM

CATILI NA RIU M.

1. OMNES' homines, qui sese student praestare ceteris animalibus, summa ope' niti decet, ne vitam silentio transeant veluti pecora, quae natura prona' atque ventri obedientia finxit. Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita est; animi imperio, corporis servitio magis utimur; alterum nobis cum dis, alterurn cum beluise commune est. Quo mihi rectius videtur ingenii quam virium opibus gloriam quaerere et, quoniam vita ipsa qua fruimur brevis est, memoriam nostriquam maxime longam® efficere. Nam divitiarum et formae

1 Omnes. Other editions have omnis or omneis. The accusative plural of words of the third declension making their genitive plural in ium, varied in early Latin, sometimes ending in īs, and sometimes in eis or es. This fluctuation, however, afterwards ceased; and even in the best age of the Latin language it became generally customary to make the accusative plural like the nominative in ēs. The same was the case with some other obsolete forms, as volt for vult, divorsus for diversus, quoique for cuique, maxumus for maximus, quom for quum, or cum, which are retained in many editions, but have been avoided in the present, in accordance with the orthography generally adopted during the best period of the Latin language.

2 Studeo, when the verb following has the same subject, may be construed in three ways-with the infinitive alone, as studeo praes. tare; with the accusative and infinitive, studeo me praestare, as in the present case; or with ut, as studeo ut praestem.

with the greatest exertion,' equivalent to summo opere, summopere ; as magno opere, or magnopere, signifies with great exertion,' or 'greatlyThe nominative ops is not in use, and the plural opes generally signifies the means' or 'power of doing something.'

* Prona, “bent forward,'bent down to the ground,' in opposi. tion to the erect gait of man.

5 Dis for diis. See Zumpt, $ 51, n. 5. 6 Beluis ; another, but less correct mode of spelling, is bellua. belluis.

7 Instead of memoriam nostri, Sallust might have said memoriam nostram; but the genitive nostri sets forth the object of remem. brance with greater force. See Zumpt, $ 423.

8 Quam maxime longam; that is, quam longissimam, 'lasting as long as possible.' Zumpt, $ 108.

3 Summa ope,

est.?

gloria fluxa atque fragilis est, virtus clara aeternaque babetur. Sed diu magnum inter mortales certamen fuit,' vine corporis an virtute animi res militaris magis procederet. Nam et prius quam incipias consulto, et ubi consulueris mature facto opus

Ita utrumque per se indigens, alterum alterius auxilio eget.

2. Igituro initio reges (nam in terris nomen imperii id primum fuit), diversi pars ingenium, alii corpus exercebant; etiamtum vita hominum sine cupiditate agitabatur, sua cuique satis placebant. Postea vero quam in Asia Cyrus, in Graecia Lacedaemonii et Athenienses coepere urbes atque nationes subigere, libidinem dominandi causam belli habere, maximam gloriam in maximo imperio putare, tum demum periculo atque negotiis compertum est in bello plurimum ingenium posse. Quodsi regum atque imperatorum animi virtus in pace ita ut in bello valeret, aequabilius atque constantius sese res humanae haberent, neque aliud alios ferri, neque mutari ac

1 The author here makes a digression, to remove the objection that in war bodily strength is of greater importance than mental superiority: He admits that in the earlier times it may have been so, but maintains that in more recent times, when the art of war had become rather complicate, the superiority of mind has become manifest. Vine corporis an ; that is, utrum vi corporis an. See Zumpt, D 554.

? That is, 'before undertaking anything, reflect well; but when you have reflected, then carry your design into execution without delay. The past participles consulto and facto here supply the place of verbal substantives.

3 Respecting the frequent position of igitur at the beginning of a sentence in Sallust, see Zumpt, $ 357.

* Pars, instead of alii, probably to avoid the repetition of alii, and to produce variety.

5 Postea vero quam, for postquam vero. The author means to say, that after the formation of great empires by extensive conquests, the truth became manifest that even in war mind was superior to mere bodily strength. He mentions Cyrus, king of Persia, the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, because the earlier empires of the Egyptians and Assyrians did not yet belong to accredited history.

Sallust here introduces, by quodsi (and if, or yes, if), an illustration connected with the preceding, remarks. Respecting this connecting power of quodsi, as distinguished from the simple si, see Zumpt, $ 807. This illustration, which ends with the word transfertur, was suggested to Sallust especially by the consideration of ihe recent disturbances in the Roman republic under Pompey, Caesar, and Mark Antony, three men who, in times of peace, saw their glory, previously acquired in war, fade away.

? Animi virtus ; these two words are here united to express a single idea, mental greatness.'

8 Aliud alio ferri, 'that one thing is drawn in one direction, and

cerneres,

misceri omnia cerneres. Nam imperium facile his artibus retinetur, quibus initio partum est. Verum ubi pro labore desidia, pro

continentia et aequitate libido atque superbia invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur. Ita imperium semper ad optimum quemque' a minus bono transfertur. Quae homines arant, navigant, aedificant, virtuti omnia parent. Sed multi mortales dediti ventri atque somno, indocti incultique vitam sicuti peregrinantes transiere ;* quibus profecto contra naturam corpus voluptati, anima oneri fuit. Eorum ego vitam mortemque juxta aestimo, quoniam de utraque siletur.

Verum enimvero* is demum mihi vivere atque frui anima videtur, qui aliquo negotio intentus“ praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit. Sed in magna copia rerum aliud alii natura iter ostendit.

3. Pulcrum est bene facere rei publicae; etiam bene dicere haud absurdum est ;6 vel pace vel bello clarum fieri licet; et qui fecere et qui facta aliorum scripsere, multi laudantur. Ac mihi quidem, tametsi haudquaquam par gloria sequitur scriptorem et actorem rerum, tamen in primis arduum videtur res gestas scribere; primum quod facta dictis exaequanda sunt, the other in another.' For aliud ulio, see Zumpt, 0714; and for

in which the second person singular of the subjunctive answers to the English “you,' when not referring to any definite person, D381.

* Optimum quemque, 'to every one in proportion as he is better than others.' Respecting this relative meaning of quisque, see Zumpt, 0710. Every one,' absolutely, is unusquisque, and ad. jectively omnis.

** They have passed through life like strangers or travellers ;' that is, as if they had no concern with their own life, although it is clear that human life is of value only when men are conscious of them. selves, and exert themselves to cultivate their mental powers, and apply them to practical purposes.

* I set an equal value upon their life and their death ;' that is, an equally low value, juxta being equivalent to aeque or pariter.

4 Verum enimvero; these conjunctions are intended strongly to draw the attention of the reader to the conclusion from a preceding argument.

6. Intent upon some occupation.' Intentus is commonly construed with the dative, or the preposition in or ad with the accusative; but as a person may be intent upon something, so he also may be intent by, or in consequence of, something, so that the ablative is perfectly consistent.

6 Haud absurdum est, “is not unbecoming;' that is, 'is worthy of man.'

Quidem here, like the Greek yèv in tuoi mèv, without a dè follow. ing, introduces one opinion in contradistinction from others, though the latter are not mentioned, but merely suggested by quidem. I for my part think but what others think I do not know, or care.'

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