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2. ASSIMILATION AND DRAMATIC INSTINCT.-- Relation of words, ideas, thought and experience to expression. Elements of dramatic instinct studied and practiced. Reading, speaking, recitation and action, as phases of dramatic expression. Relation of assimilation and sympathy to expression. (Text-book “Imagination,” Part II.)
3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMAGINATION. - Nature, actions and characteristics of the imagination. Function of the imagination in the vocal interpretation of literature. Forms of Poetry. (Text-book “ Imagination," Part I.)
4. RHYTHM AND MELODY IN SPEECH. ~ Rhythm in nature and art. Rhythm of thinking and feeling. Metres — their nature, meaning, relation to Rhythm and adequate vocal rendering. Elements of natural melody in speech. Character and function of voice modulations. Rhythmic and melodic elements of naturalness. Speech-tunes. Faults of speakers.
5. TONE, COLOR, AND HARMONY. The emotional modulation of resonance. Relation of the emotional to the intellectual modulations of the voice. Gamut of passion. Laws of art in Vocal Expression.
These five courses are to be taken by students in the order given. Courses 4 and 5 are given in alternate years.
6. PROBLEMS IN VOCAL EXPRESSION.- Study of elementary psychic actions and their rendering through the voice. The practice of short passages to illustrate the first steps in Vocal Expression.
Supplementary course in Vocal Expression given the first or second year.
7. STUDY OF SELECTIONS, for Public Reading with Special Reference to Unity in Expression.
An advanced course given the third year. The chief object of attention in Course 6 (supplementary) is the student himself; in Course 7, the artistic rendering of the selections.
8. FORMS OF POETY.- Study of Lyrics and other short forms of poetry. Comparison of the epic and lyric spirit.
The centre of attention in Course 8 is the nature of poetry and the principles of the artistic interpretation of the spirit of poetry by the voice.
(See also courses in Literature, Public Reading, speaking, etc.)
II. VOCAL TRAINING. Voice is studied as an agent of the mind, modulated by thought, feeling and character. The courses in Vocal Training contemplate securing correct voice action through technical exercises, and proper response and use of the voice through thinking and feeling. The vocal programmes are a series of systematic and progressive exercises and steps to accomplish these ends.
I. ELEMENTS OF VOCAL TRAINING.– Correct method of breathing. Fundamental conditions of voice production. Essential qualities of tone. Faults of voice corrected by eradication of causes. Technical
2. PRINCIPLES OF VOCAL TAINING. — Study of the nature of the vocal instrument and its natural use. Science of voice production.
First steps in the methods of teaching voice.
3. EMISSION OF VOICE. – Relation of articulation to tone production. Special study and development of openness and freedom of
tone. Relation of faults of voice to faults of speech and their corrections. . 4. AGILITY OF VOICE. — Flexibility of organs. Correct use of registers. Agility in speech and song and their development. Range of voice in reading and speaking.
5. RESONANCE AND TONE COLOR. — Study of the overtones and sympathetic vibrations of the voice. Relation of texture of the body to tone. Diffusion of emotion. Technique of the voice in relation to imagination and feeling.
These five courses are arranged progressively with distinct programmes and exercises, and must be mastered in their order. Courses 3 and 4 are given in alternate years.
III. PHONOLOGY. 1. ARTICULATION. — Study of the elements of English speech. Development of the organs of articulation.
2. PRONUNCIATION.- The training of the ear. Vocal quantity. Common faults in pronunciation — their causes and correction. * 3. VISIBLE SPEECH. — Speech symbols. Universal alphabetics. Elementary sounds in different languages and their relations.
IV. ORGANIC PHYSICAL TRAINING. The training of the body for vitality and strength is kept distinct from the training of the body for expression. The Swedish system of gymnastics furnishes the basis of this training.
1. ORGANIC GYMNASTICS. — Physical development. Diagnosis of the condition of the health of each student. Educational gymnastics according to the Swedish and Ling methods.
2. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF FREE GYMNASTICS, advanced course.
3. ADVANCED PHYSICAL TRAINING. — Systems of gymnastics. Fundamental principles of muscular development. Special course in the gymnasium by the special instructor. (See special circular.)
V. HARMONIC TRAINING OF THE BODY. Harmonic and Pantomimic Training (V. and Vi.) includes the development of responsiveness and grace in the wody. This training is carried on in co-operation with the work in voice and vocal expression. The eradication of self-consciousness, the securing of control, the improvement of the texture and color of the voice, all depend upon proper action of the body.
1. HARMONIC GYMNASTICS. -- Principles and modes of training. Control of the body as the instrument of expression. Development of plasticity, poise, ease, precision, and harmony; of grace, strength, and responsiveness throughout.
2. CO-OPERATIVE TRAINING. - Development of unity and the sympathetic co-operation of all parts of the body.
VI. PANTOMIMIC EXPRESSION. 1. ELEMENTARY PANTOMIME. – Nature and kinds of dramatic action, Modes of expression and their peculiar laws. Problems for the development of the dramatic instinct and the language of pantomime,
2. MANIFESTATIVE PANTOMIME.-- Study of the significant motions and positions of various agents of the body. Special function of each agent in expression, Relation of expression to harmonic training Practical study of pantomimic action.
3. REPRESENTATIVE PANTOMIME. – Development of the power of descriptive action in all parts of the body. Use and abuse of descriptive pantomime.
4. CHARACTERIZATION. — Study of the “ bearings” of all parts of the body. Relation of action to character.
5. GAMUTS OF PANTOMIME. — Practice of series of movements for development of unity in the pantomimic action.
VII. UNITY AND HARMONY. The courses arranged to stimulate imagination are peculiar to the School of Expression, and it is upon these that the teachers mainly depend for the development of naturalness, unity and power. Studies in Unity and Harmony form the climax of all the courses. To promote this end the following outlines of study are especially arranged:
1. FOUNDATIONS OF EXPRESSION.— Nature of expression. Kinds of expression. Importance of fundamentals as distinguished from accidentals.
This course calls the student's attention to the inter-relations of mind, voice, and body and also to the co-operative character of all the elemental arts of expression.
2. PROBLEMS IN EXPRESSION. — Relation of psychic and pantomimic action to training.
3. THE STUDY OF RÔLES.— Elements of expression in characterization. Relation of the leading modes of expression to each other. Pantomime and Vocal Expression in dramatic situations.
4. ABRIDGMENT AND ARRANGEMENT OF SELECTIONS FOR PUBLIC READING. — Original dramatizations by students. Study of unity in larger works of fiction, and the reproduction of it in short extracts.
5. Laws of Expression in Art. — The nature and relation of these laws to all forms of dramatic expression. Practical studies with illustrations.
6. The Practical Study of Literature as Related to Expression. - The Vocal
VIII, ENGLISH LITERATURE, Two methods of studying literature are adopted in the School of Expression: the Analytic (A) and what may be termed (B) the Expressive. By the first the student is led to study some one author, book, or period, to make independent investigations of the subject, hold conversations and discussions respecting it, and to write themes upon various topics related to it. The governing principle of the second method is that art can be studied only as art and by means of art. Each selection is studied not in verbal, grammatical, or analytic fashion, but as a matter of personal enjoyment. The spirit of each work is thus assimilated and apprehension is tested by practical rendering. The following outlines are suggestive of the kind of work done.
A. 1. Scott's Narrative Poetry. 2. Four periods of Shakespeare's art. 3. Epochs of English literature. 4. Early English literature. 5. Early American literature. 6. Literature of the eighteenth century. 7. History of the novel. 8. The novel in the nineteenth century.
B. 1. Forms of poetry: lyric, epic and dramatic. 2. The shorter poems of Wordsworth. 3. The shorter poems of Shelley. 4. Studies in Browning. 5. Tennyson's “Idylls of the King.” 6. Minor poets of the nineteenth century. 7. Wit and humour in the literature of different ages and nations. 8. Interpretation of the nineteenth century in Browning and Tennyson. 9. The short story. 10. Four periods of Shakespeare's art. II. Shakespearean Comedy: “As You Liks It," “The Merchant of Venice,” “Much Ado about Nothing." 12. Shakespeare's Histories: “Henry IV.," part I. and II. 13. Shakespearean Tragedy: "Macbeth” and “Hamlet.” 14. Shakespeare's art.
See also Discussions, Dramatic Training, Public Reading, etc.
IX. CULTURE. Special courses are arranged for personal culture designed to meet the needs of all who aspire to actualize their ideals. Training for the mind and body is systematically arranged to remove awkwardness, constriction, embarrassment, self-consciousness, and habits of repression; and to develop confidence, ease, and self-control.
1. THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF ITS PERFECTION THROUGH DIFFERENT MODES OF TRAINING. — The relative value of all the historic modes of development.
2. HARMONIC TRAINING TO PERFECT AND BRING INTO UNITY THE MIND, VOICE, AND BODY -- Short selections for practical work in developing bodily health and grace, and the pleasanter qualities of the voice. Training of the imagination, artistic feeling, and control of all the powers and modes of Expression encouraged.
3. SPIRITUAL IDEALS OF THE RACE, AS ILLUSTRATED BY THE POETS. — This course has been given the present year. Lectures open to the Public..
All the arts are regarded as one in principle and in aim, while each is at the same time a distinct language of the human spirit. The special laws of each art are studied. The perceptive powers and the laws of appreciation are developed in the student. These courses are made a part of the practical school life and form a more or less important part of the collateral work of the School. They are varied each year.
1. Some phase of the history of art is given each year, illustrated by the stereopticon. The following are among the subjects — Nature and Forms of Art; Great Periods of Art; Recent Movements in Art; Pre-Raphaelitism; The Spirit of Greek Art; Principles and Laws of Art; Egyptian Art; Decorative Art; The Renaissance; Dutch Art; the Barbazon School; The Art of the Century.
2. HISTORY OF ART. — Sources, transitions, and great eras in art.
3. PRINCIPLES OF ART AND RELATIONS OF ALL THE ARTS. - Study of selected and contrasted topics from art critics of all periods.
4. LAWS OF HISTRIONIC ART. — Laws of dramatic criticism ; public reading as an art.
5. Studies and conferences upon the great masters of Expression — Homer, Phidias, Vergil, Dante, and others.
6. History of poise and dramatic action in sculpture. Studies in the galleries. 7. Novel-writing as an art. (See also Literature.)
XI. THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 1. GENERAL LAWS OF EXPRESSION in Nature, Art, and Life.
2. PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE and Its Perfection Through Training.
3. Logic of Vocal and other forms of Expression. 4. Psychology in its relation to Expression. .
XII. PUBLIC READING.
The most thorough and systematic work for all phases of impersonation, Public Reading, or dramatic Platform art. Technical and Psychic training of all kinds is given to secure plasticity and responsiveness of voice and body. Principles of all the arts are studied and applied to Vocal Expression. The practical rendering of all kinds of literature and Vocal Expression in all its forms is required. The new School of acting and public reading is contrasted with the old; recitation, impersonation, and the monologue. Candidates receive first technical and psychic training for the control of voice, body and mind. Second, instruction in various phases of practical rendering. Third, special professional work in such subjects as the following: (See also page 25.)
1. VOCAL INTERPRETATION OF LITERATURE, The. - Practi