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THE FOURTH VOLUME.
THE CONSTITUTION, LAWS, RELIGION,
AND MAGISTRATES OF THE ROJAN
Rapidity of Roman conquests
Political relations between Rome and the conquered states
Mistakes of Roman statesmen
The Roman Comitia .
Short-sighted narrowness of Roman statesmanship
Inadequacy of the old constitutional forms for the new
strain put upon them.
Methods of dealing with the subject .
problem of legislation.
Modification of existing law
General character of Roman law
Roman attachment to old forms
Organization of the Roman republic .
History of the comitia of centuries
Change in the Servian constitution
Attempts to determine the nature of this change
Theory of Huschke.
Theory of Pantagathus
Question of the date of this change
The change probably a gradual one
Proportion of the centuries to the classes
Popular tradition of the Servian constitution
Decay of the centuriate comitia
Effects of the extension of Roman dominion
Legislative powers of the comitia
Increasing importance of the comitia of tribes
Executive power of the comitia of tribes
Conduct of foreign policy.
Finance and revenue.
Absence of opposition to the nobles
Career of Caius Flaminius.
Incorporation of new citizens in the tribes .
The registration of Fabius.
Political importance of the comitia of tribes
The comitia of tribes and non-voters .
Citizens and foreigners
Citizens and slaves
The freedmen and the tribes
The censors and the freedmen
The urban and the rural tribes.
Censorship of Lepidus and Fulvius
Censorship of Gracchus, 169 B.C.
Census of 164 B.C.
The claim of the Italians to the franchise .
Working of the Roman republican constitution
The comitia and the contiones
Increasing influence of the contiones .
Intermediate position of the senate
Causes tending to increase the power of the senate
Informal authority of the senate
Political services of the senate
The senate and the magistrates.
Functions of the senate
Ancient and modern finance
Administration of the revenue by the nobles
The senate and the treasury
The senate and foreign affairs
Aggrandisement of the senate
The senate and the provinces
Judicial power of the senators
The senate and the knights
The senate and religion
Religion and the state
Legislative influence of the senate
Initiative powers of the senate
The senate and the elections to public offices
General importance and character of the Roman senate
The Roman senate the chief cause of Roman greatness
Composition of the senate .
The senate not an exclusive nor an hereditary assembly
Admission of plebeians to the senate.
Election and expulsion of members
Stability of the senate
Representative character of the senate
Order of senatorial debates
Authority of the president
Ancient and modern parliamentary debates
The senatorial order .
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE REPUBLIC IN GENERAL.
The position and influence of magistrates generally .
Position of magistrates in a republic
Constant succession of officers
Division of the executive power
Restrictions and checks on Roman magistrates
Responsibility of republican magistrates
Removal of magistrates
Privileges of magistrates
Trial of magistrates .
General effect of these checks
Multiplication of magistrates
Scattered powers of the Roman executive .
Want of cohesion among Roman magistrates
Effects of the annual change of officers
Counter-influence of the senate .
Difficulties besetting the election of magistrates
Growth of bribery and undue influence
Modes of winning popular favour
Gradual lowering of the civic character
The art of obtaining votes
Dignity of Roman magistrates.
Legislative power of Roman magistrates
Coercive powers of the magistrates