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III

Or a sudden, Nazareth and Galilee, which had been wont to tremble at the turbulence of the bordering regions, develop a revolt of their own. In Gamala, which is a league or so from Nazareth, a Galilean named Judas has for some time past been getting together a group of stalwarts pledged to effect the liberation of their country. He has a private grudge to work off as well; for Herod, the tool of Rome, killed his father, and Judas seeks vengeance. He himself is no more than an instrument in the hands of Sadduk, the head of the new party of those who pass by the name of zealots, and have forsworn obedience to Rome. "Our only duty is to God," say they. "We are free. You demand payment of a poll tax? Why, the prophets threatened King David himself, when he proposed to number Israel! They make us pay taxes on every stalk of the grain we grow, and customs dues on every flask of the oil we ship. This is worse than covetousness; it inflicts a deadly shame on the chosen people in face of the heathen. If the Pharisees put up with it, they know nothing of the spirit of the prophets; for only through discontent, only through action, can the Messiah, the promised liberator, be found!"

Judas the Galilean and his followers raise the stand

ard of revolt. They rifle the arsenal at Sephoris, seize whatever Roman money they can lay their hands on, and, with the blessing of the priests, set forth to drive the foreigners out of Palestine. Their army grows rapidly, till the hills of Galilee can no longer contain it. Varus, the Roman commander, hastens south from Syria, with legionaries who outnumber the insurgents by five to one, and the forces of neighbouring princes as allies. He relieves Jerusalem, quells the rising, and crucifies two thousand of his prisoners.-Judas, the leader, escapes.

How the boys thrill when their father and their teacher, amid alternations of hope and fear, tell them of the bold deeds of these Galileans, the early successes and the crowning disaster. Judas, the fugitive, planning a fresh campaign somewhere in the wilds of Lebanon, becomes their hero. After a time they are saddened by the news that the Romans have captured him, and that he too has died on the cross. He has been martyred for his nation. The Jews sing the praises of Judas, who perished for the sake of freedom, and in the attempt to avenge his father and many others. The place of crucifixion, on the hilltop over against Jerusalem, becomes a shrine. For a while, all hearts glow with hatred; soon, however, hope surges up anew. It has become the political faith of the Jews that they will throw off the Roman yoke. Then, and not till then, will the Messiah's reign begin.

Our thoughtful lad holds his peace while others talk. Eager for knowledge, he is in general glad to listen to

his elders; while he looks at them shrewdly, to learn, if he can, the real tenor of their thoughts. Should a traveller from Alexandria pass through Nazareth, and speak of the great library there, tell of the new sages in the city at the mouth of the Nile, Jesus will hearken to every word, and will make the most of the information which a chance wind blows into the little town in the Galilean highlands. Some wanderer from Greece may have given him tidings of the heathen prophet who taught of old in the streets of Athens, when that city was still great and powerful; the wise man who esteemed handicraftsmen more highly than school or temple, saying: "One that seeks to know himself, will always do well, and will thus win happiness." Such a message would stimulate the boy's imagination, and touch his youthful mind to wonderful issues

But when he is told to hate the heathen and to despise the Romans, and when for the first time he sees the self-feeling of his nation rise to fever heat-he is unmoved. Are we to suppose that God hates others, because he loves us? Are we so free from blemish, that we can afford to think ourselves better than our fellow men? What matter, that Carmel is now in the hands of the Phoenicians; or that, northward of the Sea of Galilee, Philip, son of Herod, reigns? If we are God's chosen people, does that mean that we need to get possession of so many mountains and so many towns? Is it not enough that the temple is ours? What if the Romans tax us, and make us pay customs dues? The rich have a little less; yet all are fed in the end. Has

the heavenly kingdom of the Messiah anything to do with the earthly kingdom of the Jews? If Sadduk and Judas wanted only to establish the kingdom of God, what need to seize the swords which the heathen had laid away in store at Sephoris?

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IV

REVOLT goes on simmering for years, will go on simmering for decades; best to think of other things.

Jesus is growing up now. After the Nazarene fashion, his black hair is parted in the middle. He is in vigorous health, for he often roams in the mountains; and in Nazareth, where he does his share of work at the carpenter's bench beside his father, the air is cooler than it is lower down the valley. The wind blows fresh and the hillsides are green in this wellwatered region. Joseph dies, and at nineteen the eldest son has to share with his mother responsibility for the care of the younger children.

He has no thought of marriage, though the law almost enjoins it, and gives a special blessing to the father of many children. Yet he loves women and children, and they love him in return. He is looked upon as rather a queer fellow, for he is so gentle in his ways, so even-tempered and obliging, never quarrelsome. He is sociable as a rule; a listener rather than a talker; giving ear to tales of human destiny, which he ponders in his heart. Ever on the alert for the note of human passion, he discovers, as if with a divining rod, the true motives of others' actions. Above all, he can see the weaknesses that are so often masked

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