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Note 1. Twice, instead of appears & Dan. 4: 15. 5: 8; Targumists wrote likewise Gen. 1: 12, 21. or with the full orthography Appended to the words N, N and which before suff. take the forms, etc., the suff. of the 2d and 3d per. sing. take the forms,, ; which forms do not elsewhere occur as noun-suffixes.

The same forms are attached to prepositions, (excepting such as are originally plural nouns, § 44. 2.) and to the signs of cases, n, etc.; as,,, etc. See below § 44.

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Note 1. These suffixes are regularly appended however, only to plurals masculine. Indeed, it is from the termination of such nouns, that the comes, which appears in the suffix of the 2d per. sing. and in all the plural suffixes. Feminines frequently take the sing. suff. “—, ——, etc. Gen. 20: 17. Dan. 2: 32. 5: 2. Ez. 4: 17. 6: 18. Is. 1: 4. Prov. 1: 18. Gen. 47:9. In Syriac this is constantly the case. The Chaldee exhibits a medium between the usage of the Hebrew and that of the Syriac.

Note 2. The suffix is in some editions written 7" or "· Frequently it appears abbreviated 7 Dan. 5: 10. 2 Sam. 11:8, 24. Ps. 119: 4.-So also the feminine is in many editions written, SO that the genders are not distinguished. Isa. 49: 18. Ven.

and the suffix must be rendered in the nominative case.

Note 3. The possessive pronoun may be expressed separately from its noun by appending suffixes to (comp. of the relative, and , sign of the dative case;) or, more rarely, to 7 (comp. of relative and 7, sign of the genitive case,) e. g. 7, thy king, lit. the king who [is] to thee. Usage has however made these particles mere signs of the genitive; for even to them (relative) is prefixed.


Note 4. Prepositions which are originally plural nouns take the suf

.44.2 $ See . בֵּינִיכוֹן, עֲלוֹהִי, קָדָמוֹהִי בַּתְרֵי .fixes of pl. nouns; e. g כְּמֵיהוֹן, אִיתוֹהי, אִיתַי .as ; e. g, כְּמָא and [יֵשׁ .Heb=] אית So also do

$9. Other Pronouns.

1. The Demonstrative Pronouns are, sing. masc. 7 (Gen. 37: 19. 7 Job 9: 24.), 77, 777 (777 Jer. 26: 9.); fem. 77, No7; com. 157, 7, (77) 727 (Ps. 24: 6, 52: 8.); this, that; plur. com. 1, EN, ON, TON these, those.

Note. With the Hebrew article, N, 7 lent to our expressions this very, precisely this.

(.4 :1 .Ruth 21:16. Lam) אִיהָא, אִיהִיא, אִיהוּא

(Ex. 20: 1.) are equivaSo also are the forms

2. The Relative Pronoun is (as a prefix), or "7 (as a 7 separate word), of both genders and both numbers. It designates regularly the Nominative or Accusative. How the other oblique cases are indicated, see in Syntax § 60.

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3. The Interrogative Pronouns are expressed, sometimes, according to the Hebrew analogy, by who? of persons, (whence for 2 Prov. 20: 6. 27: 4.) and (2) what? of things; sometimes, by prefixing the interrogative particle" to the demonstrative pronoun; 78 m. NTN f. The latter mode is rather more expressive, who indeed?

On the mode of designating the reflexive and reciprocal sense of pronouns, compare Syntax, § 49, 1.



§ 10. Derivation and inflection of verbs generally.

1. Verbs, as in Hebrew, are generally primitive. A few are formed from nouns, and are called denominatives; e. g. to eradicate, to take root, from a root; to pitch a tent, from Na tent;


.to cover סַרְבֵּל


2. The roots of verbs consist, generally, of those consonants which are pronounced in one syllable with the Vowel under the middle radical. A few consist of four consonants [quadriliterals], and are pronounced with; as The root is the third person singular masculine Praeter, and from this are derived, not only the other parts of the active voice, but a passive consisting of the same moods and tenses.

.an acquaintance מוֹדַע to be acquainted, from אִשְׁתְּמוֹדַע

Other Conjugations.

3. As in Hebrew, other forms, derived from the root and analogous to it, are employed to express various modifications of the original sense. These also are conjugated through an active and a passive voice. They are generally two, and up. These, as well as the ground-form, are called conjugations; so that we may reckon in Chaldee three usual conjugations, each including an active and a passive voice. For the unusual conjugations, Shaphel, Poël, Pilel, see § 14.

4. Characteristics and signification of the conjugations. (1) The 2d conjugation or Paël is characterised, like the Hebrew Piel, by Dagesh forte in the 2d radical. (a)

Its signification is usually causative, when Peal is intransitive; as to be wise, to make wise; to be white, to make white, to wash. (b) Frequently Paël has merely the sense of exhibiting, regarding, or treating a person as being or doing what is expressed in Peal; e. g. 7 to lie, to regard one as a liar, to convict one of falsehood. (c) Sometimes it is privative; remove ashes; to clear out stones. (2) The characteristic of the 3d conjugation or Aphel is (sometimes) prefixed to the root, and the vowel (or) in the last syllable. In signification it is usually (a) causative of Peal (especially in verbs which want Paël, though both are sometimes found; e. g. pro, py). Thus to put on, to cause [another] to put on,

to clothe, to sin,

to seduce or entice to sin. Sometimes, (b) like Paël, it has merely the sense of exhibiting, &c. e. g. PEN to show [a person] to be righteous, to treat as righteous, to acquit.

g toשן as

Note. The same conjugations are not in use in all verbs. A large number appear only in Peal, others in Paël only; for examples of the

Where the same verb has, both .סלח, סנף, חבר, זמר later compare

Paël and Aphel, these two conjugations, for the most part, have different senses; e. g. to advise, to constitute a king.

5. The Passives of all the conjugations are characterized by the preformative syllable. The of this prefix is sometimes assimilated to the succeeding letter, or transposed with it, as follows.

(a) When the active form commences with 7, or, the of the passive prefix is assimilated, and expressed by Dagesh forte in the following letter; e. g. 27, DN,

Less frequently, and . תְּבַר and שְׂפַת דְּבַר from, אִתְּבָר

only in the later Targums, does the same assimilation take place before other letters; e. g. it is written, for

, Eccl. 12: 10.

(b) If the ground-form commences with a sibilant, [, ,, or the is inserted after that letter; e. g. pan. But after, it is changed into 7; as 727

זְמַן from

The signification of these forms is not merely passive, but sometimes reflexive or reciprocal; as sult together; frequently, even in the sense of the Greek middle voice; e. g. 12 to get an advantage.

Moods and Tenses.

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6. All these conjugations have, in both active and passive voices, the Praeter and Future tenses, the Infinitive and Imperative moods, and the Participle. The actives have two participles throughout. All these arise out of the ground-form, mediately or immediately, by the insertion of formative letters, or by a different pronunciation of the radicals, or by both together. The different persons of the Praeter and Imperative are formed, as in Hebrew, by suffixes, and the Future by prefixes and suffixes, originally fragments of personal pronouns.

7. Verbs are either regular or irregular. The former class includes all those verbs, the radicals of which remain unchanged throughout all their inflections; the latter, those which suffer a change or omission of one or two radicals.

11. Inflection of the Regular Verb.

1. Most nearly connected with the Praeter stands the Imperative, from which the future is derived. The Imperative of Peal is characterised by the vowel those of Paël and Aphel are pronounced like the Praeter. 2. The Future is derived from the Imperative by prefixing "; which is pronounced in Peal with, in Paël with


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