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Ithpeel and the whole of the 2d conj. are for the most part regular. In the latter, some verbs retain 7 as their first radical; e. g. Ps. 88: 13. Eccl. 9: 3. In Aphel forms with, after the praeformatives of the Fut. and Part., are not uncommon: e. g.

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in Dan. 2:

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Ps. 49: 19. Jer. 10: Zech. 11: 2.

The difference between these two classes of verbs is not, however, so great as to prevent their forms being frequently interchanged, especially in Aphel. Thus we have, at the same time, and is

in), יְנַק .אוֹמַר and אַיְקָר .6 :66 .Ps, הֵבִיל and אוֹבִיל .16 :17 .Gen

Heb.) becomes in Aphel pin.

4. A class of verbs assimilate their first radical to the following letter, in the Inf. and Fut. Peal, and in Aphel; so that they are in these forms entirely analogous to verbs. To this class belong 27, Aphel

, Aphel, Deut. 34: 6. Jon.; 2, Aphel


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מִדַּע .e. g. Inf ; יְכַל and יְרַב, יְדַע,also in some of their forms

Gen. 15: 13, Ps. 133: 1.

Num. 13: 31. Fut. T

1 Sam. 20: 30. (even 7 Is. 4: 15. Dan. 2: 9.), also ;

2 Sam. 16: 18. Ezek. 7: 19.

21. Verbs Pe Aleph (Quiescent).

A few verbs are treated not only as gutturals, but at the same time as quiescents; viz.



(a) TON, SUN, NON, TN. The N of these verbs, in the Future and Inf. Peal quiesces in ; e. g., and sometimes is even exchanged for ; as 7, 72.


אַיְכַל). אוֹבֵד אוֹכֵל Throughout Aphel it becomes ; as

peculiar.) An instance of

Deut. 32: 13. is altogether peculiar.)

Hophal, 121, occurs Dan. 7: 11.



TEN, EN and NON frequently take in the Fut. and

T -:

Part. Paël, the contracted form

NN, 2, in conse

quence of which is frequently dropped.

(c) The of some others is dropped in Ithpaal and compensated by Dagesh forte in of the prefix, which also receives the vowel which belonged to ; e. g.

for NN 1 Sam. 2: 5. Ezek. 47: 11.

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§ 22. Verbs Ayin Vav (Ayin Yodh.)

The commutation of 1 and, in these verbs, is more abundant in Chaldee than in Hebrew.

particulars are worthy of notice.

The following

1. In the first conjugation (with the exception of the 1st Part. which has the form ) and in the third, these verbs are monosyllabic throughout; as DP, DP, P. The preformatives of the Fut. and Inf. of both conjugations generally have though in the later Targums, they are not unfrequently pointed with

or; e. g. Ruth 2. 17. Gen. 27: 4. Zech. 1: 16. Ps. 66: 19. The form , Fut. Peal from 17, Ez. 5: 5. 6: 5., is entirely peculiar.

Note. The 2d Part. Peal sometimes like the Inf. p, Dan. 6: 18.

2. In Ithpeel, the first radical is pronounced with and the of the preformative doubled, D. In the later Targums occurs also the lengthened form p Ex. 40: 17. Hhireq something takes the place of Qamets; e.g. Jer. 33: 22. Gen. 38: 26. Jer. T. Dan.

4: 9.


3. Paël and Ithpaal are regularly inflected from the ground-forms and 2. Many verbs, however, substitute for these conjugations Polel p or Palpel

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; e. g.

4. Aphel has occasionally the form of verbs pi Ps. 78: 13. Gen. 18: 16. Jon. pTN Ps. 14: 2. See 1, of this section.

5. The following verbs are inflected as ";

in Peal; thus,זיף and ,שִׂים סִיב מיתרִים (a) .22 :23 .etc. Gen. 27: 1. Prov ,סיבית סיבת סיב

1 Sam. 12: 2; Imp. D,, Ez. 4: 41; Fut. " Deut. 15: 6.

(b.) 7 in Ithpeel, fully, 72, or contracted, s, Job 28: 23. 11: 12. 37: 14. Ps. 73: 17.

Note. Those verbs which have moveable for their middle radical, (as b1, 1, etc.), do not belong here, but are regular. The number of such verbs is greater in Chaldee than in Hebrew. Some verbs with the same radicals exist in both forms, and in that case have different significations; to look at, to be wise; to sink down, to sprout.

$23. Verbs Lamedh Aleph.

This class includes all those verbs which are comprehended in Heb. under the two classes (including verbs originally and,) and, the difference between the two classes being entirely lost in Chaldee. Rarely, (and almost exclusively in the biblical Chaldee), the radical form of these verbs terminates in _; e. g. Dan. 2; 16. 4: 8. 6: 3. Num. 5: 26. Their chief anomalies are the following.

1. In those forms which terminate in the 3d radical, (a) In Peal Praeter, and Inf., as well as in the Fut. Imp. and 1st Part. of all the conjugations, that radical is usually ; as

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מַגְלִי, גְלִי, גְלִי, אִתְגְלִי and in the Imp. Peal, ; as

(b) In the Praet. and 2d Part. of the other conjugations ba,


Note. The Inf. Peal sometimes has ; e. g. 2 Gen. 1: 14.

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Is. 22: 12. So the 1st Part.; e. g. " Sol. S. 1: 3. Prov. 17: 21. More frequently appears in the Fut. and Imp. Gen. 3: 18. Jer. T. Job 9: 3. Is. 41: 19, etc.




2. This quiesces in the Praeter Peal in in the Inf., Fut. and Part. in ; the in the Praeter of Ithpeel and Aphel usually in in the Imp. and Part. in the passive Part. of Pael and Aphel only, is moveable ;

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; in

Note. For examples of the Praet. Peal with see Gen. 2: 18. Jon. Deut. 30:9; of the Praet. Aphel with, Ps. 78: 11. 2 K. 8:8; of the Futures with Is. 30: 26. Jer. 51: 8.

3. In the course of inflection the 3d radical is

(a) Dropped, before the sufformative ♫ of 3d fem. sing. Praeter Peal, before

[for] of the 3d fem.

plur., before and 7" in the Fut. of all the conjugations; before the sufformatives of the Imp. (in which ʼn generally occurs instead of 1); and in the 3d pers. plur. masc. Praet. Peal before 1, which, in these verbs, takes the place of the regular ; e. g. ba, maba, iba, ban, jiba; moveable, before the sufformatives

(b) Exchanged, for

and N, 3d fem. sing. and plur. Praeter of all the con

jugations except Peal, also before

pers. fem. plur. Fut.; e. g. quiescent, (quiescing sometimes in

of the 2d and 3d


b, 77; for*

sometimes in ) be

fore all the sufformatives which begin with or ♫, and before of the 3d plur. Praeter (which is here moveable) in all the conjugations except Peal; e. g.ą, jamba,

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Notes on the Paradigm of verbs .

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1. Praeter. The 3d per. sing. fem. Peal sometimes appears with the full orthography; as N, Dan. 2: 35. Sometimes it follows the analogy of the other conjs.; thus Job 17: 7. (or like Is. 1: 7. or a Dan. 2: 35. 4: 19). The 2d per. sing. m. is sometimes written fully, terminating in N. The 3d per. pl. m. follows, in some copies, the Hebrew form; as Lam. 1: 3. Sol. S. 3: 1. Num. 26:

Dan. 3:21. The 3d per.

Ruth 4: 17. Finally

64, or the analogy of the other conjs.; as 7 pl. f. occurs in the form Deut. 2: 11, or a few instances occur of the Praet. Pe. with N prosthetic; e. g. " Dan. 5: 4. In the other conjugations the 3d per. sometimes takes ; Ezek. 23: 10. Is. 11: 4. Jer.

Prov. 20: 12.

pl. instead of

6: 14.

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2. Future. The 3d per. m. sing. terminates indifferently in or *. It sometimes appears even with Qamets; e. g. No≥7n Is. 53: 2. Na Zech. 6: 12, (according to Buxtorf.) The 3d per. pl. sometimes takes the termination 7 instead of ji. Comp. Dan. 7: 26. Is. 65: 23.

Ex. 22: 31.

3. Imperative. The 2d f. sing. ends sometimes in ; as Gen. 19: 32. The form N2, Gen. 24: 60, is anomalous.

4. Infinitive. In Peal it sometimes takes a paragogic N; e.g. * Prov. 25: 17. Esth. 5: 14. Ez. 5: 9. The regular form is employed as Inf. absolute Is. 61: 10. Am. 5: 5. Gen. 26: 28. The Inff. of the other conjugations, in the biblical Chaldee, terminate in e. g. Dan. 2: 10. 5: 2. 6: 8., more rarely, in the Targums in 2; e. g. in Num. 12: 8. Jon.

For the Participles of verbs, see below § 34.

Note. Apocopate Futures and Imperatives are less frequent in Chaldee than in Hebrew. The following are examples.

Fut. apoc. Hab. 2: 16. (Eccl. 11: 3. like the Heb. ahay?), san, jin Ex. 22: 31. from N, (elsewhere fully, N, * Gen. 17: 4. 24: 14.); "", ", ', jinn, sh, from N, Deut. 4: 1. Prov. 15: 27. Gen. 20: 7. 2K. 1: 2. 8: 10. These forms have generally an optative signification.

Imp. apoc. n, with prosth., Gen. 24: 14. Pael, 7 Gen. 44: 1. Gen. 37: 16. Aphel, ".

An apocopate participle, Aphel, is " instead of Deut. 32: 39.


$24. Verbs doubly anomalous.

1. and (3). These unite the irregularities of both classes; e. g., Aphel, ".

לא פא

2. and . E. g. NON, NON, NIN, NON. Fut. Deut. 29: 20.


Gen. 33: 14. Inf. NT


Lev. 13: 18.

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Dan. 3: 19. Dan. 3: 2.-Ithpeel,"

Fut. Lev. 13: 2-Paël, "ON, Part. 2 Kings

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