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Gen. 4:

N 2 Kings 5: 13. Aphel, Gen. 6: 17. Imp. Peal in one case, by Aphae(Lond. ed. 1) venite, Prov. 9: 5. Elsewhere 1, Dan. 3: 26.

resis, 1


3. and N. E. g. NT (17), 7, 27.


Peal, Fut

Aphel, 7 Ps. 75: 2.

Prov. 28: 13. Imp. Gen. 19:22.


20: 5. Ithpaal 4. Part.


Ps. 50: 16. 12: 33. Part. 7

.2 :5 .Judg אודוּ

Note. Those verbs which have for their middle radical are regular, so far as is concerned, i. e. the 7 is always a consonant; as N17,

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$25. Defective verbs and mixed forms.

1. But few verbs actually exhibit all, or nearly all, the moods and tenses. So far as this deficiency is occasioned by the fewness of those remains of the Chaldee which have reached our time, it does not belong to a grammatical treatise. Those verbs only must be noticed here which, though cases frequently occur where certain forms would naturally be employed, constantly supply their places by forms borrowed from different themes. The following are examples;

and 7, to give, the former occurring in Peal Praet. and Imp. and in Ithpeel; the latter chiefly in Peal Fut. and Inf.― and po to ascend, the former being used in Praet. Peal, in Paël, and the Passives of the first and second conjugations; the latter in the Inf. and Imp. Peal, and in Aphel. Deut. 9: 9. 10: 1. 2 Kings 17: 4.- and Np to drink; N in Peal, Np in Aphel.-2 and

T :


to go; the former chiefly in Paël, the latter in Inf. and Fut. Peal.

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An example of double inflection in the same word is . The

Future is commonly
the analogy of verbs,
curs, Dan. 2: 9.

are improperly so designated.


2. The following, which have been called mixed forms, Dan. 7: 15. and Dan. 4: 16. are but Syriac pointings of the Praeter; and the Future 1st sing. Jud. 15: 7. (Ven. ed.) for is not destitute of all analogy; comp. in Hebrew, Gesenius Lehrgeb. p. 312. 72 Hos. 4: 2. can hardly be called a mixture of Fut. and Part.; for,

like verbs. The 1st per. sing. only follows Ps. 39:5. 101: 4. though I also oc

may יימן (יימי as the Future of this verb has the form)

be considered 3d plur. fem. analogous with 72

3: 19.

$26. Irregular verbs with suffixes.

1. The forms of most irregular verbs before suffixes do not differ essentially from those of the regular verbs; and, so far as verbs, 7, 1, and are concerned, may be learned from § 16. The following examples will illustrate this remark;

(a), Peal; 773753 Judg. 20: 32.

Ps. 91: 12. Ps. 28: 3.—Aphel; 757 Ex. 32: 12. "PEN Job 10: 18. NON Num. 20: 5.

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(6), Peal; 177127 Jer. 20: 5.—Aphel;

7 with

epenthetic ɔ, Dan. 7: 23. NIMAN Ps. 44: 20. "
Dan. 2: 24. Jud. 19: 3.

(c), Peal;


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7 Dan. 7: 23.-Paël;


PN Dan. 3: 2. 2 Hos. 6: 2. (d) 5, Peal; 7777 Ez. 28: 19.

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Ez. 5: 11. Deut. 22: 2.—

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Dan. 2: 26.

2. The forms of verbs before suffixes differ more widely from those of the regular verbs. Thus


(a) No and ↳ final quiescent are commonly dropped before suffixes in the Praeter and Future; while the former takes suffixes with the union vowel – or and the latter with epenthetic; e. g. " he saw me, 2 Sam. 1: 7. he saw him, Jud. 19: 3. Is. 42: 5. Lev. 13: 21. Sometimes they are retained; e. g. Gen. 38: 15. Aph. Deut. Gen. 3: 13. Pseudo-Jon.


.20 : 33 .Ex יחזנני

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Obad. 3.


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"INTE Prov. 8:22. 4:36.


(b) * final quiescent in is retained; e. g. "77 Ex. 4: 3. (But Jer. 36: 15, for NP).

(c) The of the 3d pers. plur. Praet. Peal, and of the Imp. is generally changed into "; " into ; e.g. " Jon. 1: 12. Lam. 1: 7. (d) The unchanged; e. g. "Jon. 2: 4.

persons of the Praeter in ♫”— and ♫”—

(e) of the 3d pers. sing. fem. Praet. is changed in

to ; e. g.

ON Hos. 4: 12.

On the Inf. Peal and the Participles, see below § 35.

the Imp. of all the conjugations N Ex. 33: 18.




$27. Derivation of Nouns.

1. Nouns, in Chaldee as in Hebrew, are either primitive or derivative. The former are, for the most part, the same as in Hebrew, and are regarded as primitive for similar reasons. Comp. Gesenius Lehrgeb. p. 478. seq. Heb. Gram. § 316. The derivatives, constituting the great majority of nouns, are formed either from verbs, (which is generally the fact), and these are termed verbal; or from other nouns, and then they are called denominative.

2. Verbals derived from the Infinitive are generally abstract in signification, i. e. they express the action, and have the forms p, p, Sup, Sup, Sup, Shop, Shop, Siup, Shop, Supp, etc.; those derived from Participles are generally concrete, i. e. express the actor, and have the forms up, up, up, bup, Shup, Siup, etc.

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3. Denominatives are generally formed by adding the termination "— (^__), fem. N‚— (♫"—); or. They are generally adjectives, especially ordinal numerals, or patronymic or gentile nouns; e.g." a foreigner, " Egyptian, 170 a rebel. Many feminine nouns in and are also denominative; e. g. 2 a kingdom,


a wid אַלְמָן widowhood, fror אַלְמָנוּת ; a king מְלֵךְ from


ow; a rooting out, extirpation, from a root.

$28. Gender and number of nouns.

1. The genders are two, masculine and feminine. The latter generally terminate in (-), 1 (511), "— (5"—), or . It should be noticed however that is also the


termination of the emphatic state in masculines. Consequently, in ascertaining the gender of nouns, the analogy of the other dialects and the sense are more certain guides than the mere form of a noun.

Note 1. The termination is generally to be considered a Hebraism. It is regular in Chaldee, only in feminines derived from mascu

: קַדְמַי fem. from קַדְמָאָה lines in ; as


Note 2. There are a considerable number of feminine nouns with masculine forms, mostly the same as in Hebrew; e. g. 7 a stone, a path, » earth, an ear, a sword. Some are common; e. g. n a mark, & fire, NE a vine, and the numerals from 20 to 100.

2. The numbers are two, singular and plural. The few dual forms which occur are to be regarded as Hebraisms. They occur only in the biblical Chaldee, terminating in the absolute state, in See Dan. 2: 34. 7: 4. 7The dual in the other states cannot be distinguished from the plural. Compare Dan. 2: 33, 41. 7: 7. In the Targums the double members, etc. are expressed by the plural, and where the number two is required, 7 is inserted. Plurals masculine end in 7, plurals feminine in 7—•

To most masculine nouns, viz. to those which terminate in a radical letter, the termination is directly appended; e. g. a rock, pl. 7. But those which terminate in & derived from verbs 3, take 7; those in" or "N- take 7. Feminines in change this ending directly into ; those in and n change these termin


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and ; מַשְׁרְיָן, מַלְכְּיָן plural, מַשְׁרִית, מַלְכוּת .e. g ;יָן and וָן ations into

finally, those in

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from masculines in form the plural in 17—; e. g.

As in Hebrew, there are also in Chaldee many nouns having the form of masculines in the sing. but of feminines in the pl., and vice versa ;

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In some nouns both terminations are in use, even in the same Targum; e. g. NAN, pl. 7728 and 72; 77, pl. 77772 and 71772, (as Sometimes the forms with different endings have different significations; e. g. from p a voice, p thunders, Ex. 9: 23., 1 voices, Ps. 93: 4. These examples should be distinguished from epicene nouns, or those which express both males

.etc, יוֹמָן and יוֹמִין .pl, יוֹם ; (נַהֲרוּת if from

. סוּסְיָן and סוּסִין .pl, סוס and females, such as

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