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Gen. 4:

20:5. Ithpaal "ON 2 Kings 5: 13. Aphel, 4. Part. Gen. 6: 17. Imp. Peal in one case, by Aphaeresis, (Lond. ed. 1) venite, Prov. 9: 5.



where 15, Dan. 3: 26.


3. and N. E. g. NT

"Ps. 50: 16. Aphel,


12:33. Part. 7

.2 :5 .Judg אוֹדוּ

(17), NT, N. TN Ps. 75: 2. Inf. Prov. 28: 13. Imp.

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Peal, Fut


Note. Those verbs which have for their middle radical are regular, so far as is concerned, i. e. the is always a consonant; as No17, NIA.

Gen. 19: 22.

$ 25. Defective verbs and mixed forms.

1. But few verbs actually exhibit all, or nearly all, the moods and tenses. So far as this deficiency is occasioned

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the fewness of those remains of the Chaldee which have reached our time, it does not belong to a grammatical treatise. Those verbs only must be noticed here which, though cases frequently occur where certain forms would naturally be employed, constantly supply their places by forms borrowed from different themes. The following are examples;

and 15, to give, the former occurring in Peal Praet. and Imp. and in Ithpeel; the latter chiefly in Peal Fut. and Inf.-2 and po to ascend, the former being used in Praet. Peal, in Paël, and the Passives of the first and second conjugations; the latter in the Inf. and Imp. Peal, and in Aphel. Deut. 9: 9. 10: 1. 2 Kings 17: 4.- and in Aphel.-727 and to go; the former chiefly in Paël, the latter in Inf. and Fut. Peal.

to drink; N in Peal, Np

An example of double inflection in the same word is

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Future is commonly
the analogy of verbs,
curs, Dan. 2: 9.

are improperly so designated.


2. The following, which have been called mixed forms, Dan. 7: 15. and Dan. 4: 16. are but Syriac pointings of the Praeter; and the Future 1st sing. Jud. 15: 7. (Ven. ed.) for is not destitute of all analogy; comp. in Hebrew, Gesenius Lehrgeb. p. 312. 72 Hos. 4: 2. can hardly be called a mixture of Fut. and Part.; for,

like verbs. The 1st per. sing. only follows Ps. 39:5. 101: 4. though I also oc

may יימן (יימי as the Future of this verb has the form)

be considered 3d plur. fem. analogous with 72

3: 19.

$26. Irregular verbs with suffixes.

1. The forms of most irregular verbs before suffixes do not differ essentially from those of the regular verbs; and, so far as verbs, 7, 1, and are concerned, may be learned from § 16. The following examples will illustrate this remark;

(a), Peal; 773753 Judg. 20: 32.

Ps. 91: 12. Ps. 28: 3.—Aphel; 757 Ex. 32: 12. "PEN Job 10: 18. NON Num. 20: 5.

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(6), Peal; 177127 Jer. 20: 5.—Aphel;

7 with

epenthetic ɔ, Dan. 7: 23. NIMAN Ps. 44: 20. "
Dan. 2: 24. Jud. 19: 3.

(c), Peal;


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7 Dan. 7: 23.-Paël;


PN Dan. 3: 2. 2 Hos. 6: 2. (d) 5, Peal; 7777 Ez. 28: 19.

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Ez. 5: 11. Deut. 22: 2.—

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Dan. 2: 26.

2. The forms of verbs before suffixes differ more widely from those of the regular verbs. Thus

(a) § and ↳ final quiescent are commonly dropped before suffixes in the Praeter and Future; while the former takes suffixes with the union vowel or and the latter with epenthetic; e. g. " saw him, Jud. 19: 3.



Lev. 13: 21.

he saw me, 2 Sam. 1: 7. "
Is. 42: 5.
Sometimes they are retained; e. g.

Gen. 38: 15. Aph. Deut.
ON Gen. 3: 13. Pseudo-Jon.

4: 36.

Prov. 8: 22.
Obad. 3.
(b) final quiescent in the Imp. of all the conjugations
Ex. 33: 18.

27 Ex. 4: 3.

is retained; e. g.
(But Jer. 36: 15, No



(c) The of the 3d pers. plur. Praet. Peal, and of the Imp. is generally changed into ; 7 into ; e. g. 27 Jon. 1: 12. Lam. 1: 7.

.20 : 33 .Ex יחזנני

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(d) The persons of the Praeter in and ♫”— ♫”— remain unchanged; e. g. "Jon. 2: 4.

(e) of the 3d pers. sing. fem. Praet. is changed into ; e. g. ON Hos. 4: 12.

On the Inf. Peal and the Participles, see below § 35.



$27. Derivation of Nouns.

1. Nouns, in Chaldee as in Hebrew, are either primitive or derivative. The former are, for the most part, the same as in Hebrew, and are regarded as primitive for similar reasons. Comp. Gesenius Lehrgeb. p. 478. seq. Heb. Gram. § 316. The derivatives, constituting the great majority of nouns, are formed either from verbs, (which is generally the fact), and these are termed verbal; or from other nouns, and then they are called denominative.

2. Verbals derived from the Infinitive are generally abstract in signification, i. e. they express the action, and have the forms p, p, Sup, Sup, Sup, Shop, Shop, Siup, Shop, Supp, etc.; those derived from Participles are generally concrete, i. e. express the actor, and have the forms up, up, up, bup, Shup, Siup, etc.

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3. Denominatives are generally formed by adding the termination "— (^__), fem. N‚— (♫"—); or. They are generally adjectives, especially ordinal numerals, or patronymic or gentile nouns; e.g." a foreigner, " Egyptian, 170 a rebel. Many feminine nouns in and are also denominative; e. g. 2 a kingdom,


a wid אַלְמָן widowhood, fror אַלְמָנוּת ; a king מְלֵךְ from


ow; a rooting out, extirpation, from a root.

$28. Gender and number of nouns.

1. The genders are two, masculine and feminine. The latter generally terminate in (-), 1 (511), "— (5"—), or . It should be noticed however that is also the


. קַדְמֵי fem. from קֵדְמָאָה as ;-י lines in

termination of the emphatic state in masculines. Consequently, in ascertaining the gender of nouns, the analogy of the other dialects and the sense are more certain guides than the mere form of a noun.

Note 1. The termination -7 is generally to be considered a Hebraism. It is regular in Chaldee, only in feminines derived from mascu

; . . Note 2. There are a considerable number of feminine nouns with masculine forms, mostly the same as in Hebrew; e. g. 77 a stone, 1775 a path, 97 % earth, 7778 an ear, syna sword. Some are common; e. g. na a mark, aw fire, 4913 a vine, and the numerals from 20 to 100.

2. The numbers are two, singular and plural. The few dual forms which occur are to be regarded as Hebraisms. They occur only in the biblical Chaldee, terminating in the absolute state, in 7'- See Dan. 2: 34. 7: 4. The dual in the other states cannot be distinguished from the plural. Compare Dan. 2: 33, 41. 7: 7. In the Targums the double members, etc. are expressed by the plural, and where the number two is required, ????? is inserted. Plurals masculine end in 7"--, plurals feminine in 77:

To most masculine nouns, viz. to those which terminate in a radical letter, the termination 7'- is directly appended; e. g. 750 a rock, pl. 79270. But those which terminate in x derived from verbs as, take 7:-; those in " or "X- take 74. Feminines in a change this ending directly into 7; those in ni and n'- change these terminations into 7; and 77; e. g. 7172, 0902 , plural 77232,777972; and finally, those in x from masculines in " form the plural in 7; -; e. g.

. 77 As in Hebrew, there are also in Chaldee many nouns having the form of masculines in the sing. but of feminines in the pl., and vice versa ;

; ; ; , ; . In some nouns both terminations are in use, even in the same Tar

. , . ; , . , (

); , . " Sometimes the forms with different endings have different significations; e. g. from 7 a voice, 737 thunders, Ex. 9: 23., 77voices, Ps. 93: 4. These examples should be distinguished from epicene nouns, or those which express both males


. קַדְמָיָן .plur קֵדְמָאָה

.שְׁנִין שְׁנָא ; תּבִּין תִּכָּא ; מִפִין, מִכָּא ; אַפְנִין, אַמָּה ; אַרְעָן, אֲרַע .e.g

as) , נַהַרְיָן and נַהֲרִין .pl , נְהַר ; אבְּהָן and אַבִּין .pl ,אמָּא .gum; e. g

.etc ,יוֹמָן and יוֹמִין .pl ,יום ; (נַהֲרוּת if from

.סוּסְיָן and סוּסִין .pl , סוס and females, such as

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