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20: 5. Ithpaal "ON 2 Kings 5: 13. Aphel,

4. Part.



Gen. 4:

Gen. 6: 17. Imp. Peal in one case, by Aphae(Lond. ed. 1) venite, Prov. 9: 5. Else

where 1, Dan. 3: 26.

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3. " and No3. E. g. NT? (1777), NIT, N27.

Ps. 50: 16. Aphel,

Peal, Fut

Ps. 75: 2. Inf.


Ex. 12: 33. Part. 72 Prov. 28: 13. Imp. Gen. 19: 22.

.2 :5 .Judg אוֹדוּ

Note. Those verbs which have for their middle radical are regular, so far as is concerned, i. e. the 7 is always a consonant; as NIT,

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$25. Defective verbs and mixed forms.

1. But few verbs actually exhibit all, or nearly all, the moods and tenses. So far as this deficiency is occasioned by the fewness of those remains of the Chaldee which have reached our time, it does not belong to a grammatical treatise. Those verbs only must be noticed here which, though cases frequently occur where certain forms would naturally be employed, constantly supply their places by forms borrowed from different themes. The following are examples;

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and 13, to give, the former occurring in Peal Praet. and Imp. and in Ithpeel; the latter chiefly in Peal Fut. and Inf.― and po to ascend, the former being used in Praet. Peal, in Paël, and the Passives of the first and second conjugations; the latter in the Inf. and Imp. Peal, and in Aphel. Deut. 9: 9. 10: 1. 2 Kings 17:4.- and to drink; N in Peal, Np in Aphel.-2 to go; the former chiefly in Paël, the latter in Inf.

and Fut. Peal.

An example of double inflection in the same word is

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Future is commonly

like verbs j. The 1st per. sing. only follows

the analogy of verbs D, Ps. 39:5. 101: 4. though 7 also occurs, Dan. 2: 9.

2. The following, which have been called mixed forms, are improperly so designated. Dan. 7: 15. and D Dan. 4: 16. are but Syriac pointings of the Praeter; and the Future 1st sing. Jud. 15: 7. (Ven. ed.) for is not destitute of all analogy; comp. in Hebrew, Gesenius Lehrgeb. p. 312. 72 Hos. 4: 2. can hardly be called a mixture of Fut. and Part.; for,

may יימן (יימי as the Future of this verb has the form)

be considered 3d plur. fem. analogous with

3: 19.

$26. Irregular verbs with suffixes.

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1. The forms of most irregular verbs before suffixes do not differ essentially from those of the regular verbs; and, so far as verbs,,, and are concerned, may be learned from § 16. The following examples will illustrate this remark;

(a) ¶¤, Peal; 713753 Judg. 20: 32.

Ps. 91: 12.

Ps. 28: 3.-Aphel; 71PEN Ex. 32: 12.

Job 10: 18. NON Num. 20: 5.

epenthetic, Dan. 7: 23. 2 Ps. 44: 20.

with תַּדְקִנָּה ;Jer. 20: 5.-Aphel יִבְּזוּנוּן ; Peal, עע (6)

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Dan. 2: 24. Jud. 19: 3.

(c), Peal; Gen. 50: 26.

777 Dan. 7: 23.-Paël;

PN Dan. 3: 2. NEP Hos. 6: 2. (d), Peal; Ez. 28: 19.

Ez. 5:14.

Ps. 105: 10.—Aphel;

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Aphel, 1977178 Dan. 5:7. "37277 Dan. 2: 13. "ngin

Dan. 2: 26.

2. The forms of verbs


before suffixes differ more

widely from those of the regular verbs.


(a) * and * final quiescent are commonly dropped before suffixes in the Praeter and Future; while the former takes suffixes with the union vowel or and the latter with

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Obad. 3.

(b) final quiescent in

Gen. 38: 15. Aph. Deut. ON Gen. 3: 13. Pseudo-Jon. the Imp. of all the conjugations

is retained; e. g. "7727 Ex. 4: 3.

(But Jer. 36: 15,


.( קְרִיהָא

Ex. 33: 18.

(c) The of the 3d pers. plur. Praet. Peal, and of the

Imp. is generally changed into "; "

Jon. 1: 12. Lam. 1: 7.

into ""; e.g. "

(d) The persons of the Praeter in — and ♫”—

unchanged; e. g. "

Jon. 2: 4.


(e) of the 3d pers. sing. fem. Praet. is changed in57–

to ; e. g. 72N Hos. 4: 12.

On the Inf. Peal and the Participles, see below § 35.



$27. Derivation of Nouns.

1. Nouns, in Chaldee as in Hebrew, are either primitive or derivative. The former are, for the most part, the same as in Hebrew, and are regarded as primitive for similar reasons. Comp. Gesenius Lehrgeb. p. 478. seq. Heb. Gram. § 316. The derivatives, constituting the great majority of nouns, are formed either from verbs, (which is generally the fact), and these are termed verbal; or from other nouns, and then they are called denominative.

2. Verbals derived from the Infinitive are generally abstract in signification, i. e. they express the action, and have the forms p, p, Sup, Sup, Sup, Shop, Stop, Siup, biop, Supa, etc.; those derived from Participles are generally concrete, i. e. express the actor, and have the

.etc ,קְטוּל, קְטִיל, קְטִיל, קְטָל קְטַל קָטֵל forms


3. Denominatives are generally formed by adding the termination "__ (^__), fem. _ (__); or. They are generally adjectives, especially ordinal numerals, or patronymic or gentile nouns; e.g." a foreigner, " Egyptian, a rebel. Many feminine nouns in and are also denominative; e.g.


a kingdom,


a wid אַלְמָן widowlhood, from אַלְמָנוּת ; a king מְלֵךְ from שְׁרשִׁית ; ow

a rooting out, extirpation, from a root.

$28. Gender and number of nouns.

1. The genders are two, masculine and feminine. The latter generally terminate in _ (_), 1 (11), "— (n"—), or . It should be noticed however that is also the


28. NOUNS; gender and number.

termination of the emphatic state in masculines.



quently, in ascertaining the gender of nouns, the analogy of the other dialects and the sense are more certain guides than the mere form of a noun.

Note 1. The termination

is generally to be considered a Hebra

ism. It is regular in Chaldee, only in feminines derived from mascu

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Note 2. There are a considerable number of feminine nouns with masculine forms, mostly the same as in Hebrew; e. g. a stone, a path, earth, an ear, a sword. Some are common; e. g. Na mark, fire, NE a vine, and the numerals from 20 to 100. 2. The numbers are two, singular and plural. The few dual forms which occur are to be regarded as Hebraisms. They occur only in the biblical Chaldee, terminating in the absolute state, in See Dan. 2: 34. 7: 4. The dual in the other states cannot be distinguished from the plural. Compare Dan. 2: 33, 41. 7: 7. In the Targums the double members, etc. are expressed by the plural, and where the number two is required, 77 is inserted. Plurals masculine end in 7, plurals feminine in 7-.


To most masculine nouns, viz. to those which terminate in a radical letter, the termination 7 is directly appended; e. g. a rock, pl. 7. But those which terminate in & derived from verbs N, take 7-; those in" or "N- take 7. Feminines in change this ending directly into J-; those in n and n change these termin

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As in Hebrew, there are also in Chaldee many nouns having the form of masculines in the sing. but of feminines in the pl., and vice versa ;

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.etc, יוֹמָן and יוֹמִין .pl, יוֹם ; (נַהֲרוּת if from

In some nouns both terminations are in use, even in the same Targum; e. g. NaN, pl. 772 and 72; 7, pl. 77772 and 71772, (as Sometimes the forms with different endings have different significations; e. g. from p a voice, Tp thunders, Ex. 9: 23., 1 voices, Ps. 93: 4. These examples should be distinguished from epicene nouns, or those which express both males

. סוּסְוָן and סוּסִין .pl, סוס and females, such as

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