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Sometimes feminines plural take an additional plural ending. So in Hebrew and Arabic; comp. Heb. Gram. § 327. 5.


Some nouns occur only in the plural; as heaven; especially those which designate the different ages of life; as y youth, though some of these occur in the singular, with the termination n. Others occur in the singular only; e. g. the names of the metals, gold, iron, silver. But 72 occurs in the sense of pieces of silver, Gen. 42: 25.

$29. States of Nouns.

1. Besides the absolute and construct, which occur in Hebrew, nouns in Chaldee have also the emphatic state, in which they originally corresponded, in sense, to nouns in Hebrew with the article.* It has however come into use, in many cases, where the sense does not require the definite article. In Syriac, this liberty has been much more extensively taken.

Note. The indefinite article is expressed, either simply by the absolute state, or by the numeral one; e. g. Dan. 2: 31. 6: 18. Ez. 4: 8. 2. Construct State. Characteristic terminations.

a. Masculines plural change 7 into. The termination of the construct state of masc. nouns in the sing. does not differ from that of the absolute state.

b. Feminines in — (7) change these endings into in the sing., into in the plur. const. Feminines in ħ and "— resume their original ♫ in the const. sing., and in the plur. change 77 and into ♫ and ♫. 3. The emphatic state is characterised, in both genders and both numbers, by the ending . (Masculines in *—, which take ‚ in the emphatic state, constitute the only exception).

a. To masculines singular (except such as terminate in N or "—), this termination is directly added; e. g. Did a horse, No the horse; masculines in substitute the letter for their final syllable, and those change this ending into ; e. g. Nha,

which end in

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b. Feminines in N change N in the emph. sing. into ; e. g. N2,

Malte Brun

* So in Danish, Landene, the countries, from Lande, countries. Rask Danish Grammar, p. 14. Also in Albanian, Gour, stone; Gouri, the stone. Univ. Geog. vol. VI. p. 201.

קַדְמָאָה .e. g ;יְת change this ending into אָה those in : מַלְכְּתָא .emph

emph. 7 finally those in and appear in the emph. state with

. מַלְכּוּתָא .e. g ;בית and וּת their original full endings

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c. In the plural, the masc. endings 7 and 7 are changed into N; as 2,1" (from sing.") becomes "; as 77, emph.

to the construct; e. g.

nate in the sing. in 7

d. In feminines plur., the emphatic state is formed by adding 72, n. But such as termi(from masculines in ") resume here their


. קַדְמָאָה from קַדְמָיָתָא .original ; e. g

4. Before suffixes [in the suffix state], nouns exhibit the following modifications.

a. Derivative masc. nouns in " change this ending into N before suff.; as from "; those in N, (from verbs ) change this termination into moveable; as from Na.

ending 77— (77–) and then take

b. All masc. plur. nouns drop the the suff. of nouns plural.

c. Feminines in N change

into in the sing.; as n from

; those in and take the construct form before suffixes; as

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; those in 7 (radical) change this ending to —; and those (from masc. in —) resume their original; e.g. #1277 ·

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d. In the fem. pl., suffixes are appended to the construct state; e. g.

30. Declension of Nouns.


Since no vowels are dropped, except those of the final syllable of ground forms, (comp. § 7. c.), and since changes any kind are less frequent than in Hebrew, (the first vowel of the ground form remaining throughout invariable, except in monosyllables and segholate forms), fewer modes of declension would naturally be expected, than appear in Hebrew. Accordingly we reckon in Chaldee nine declensions, six of masculine, and three of feminine nouns.


§§ 31. 32. NOUNS; first and SECOND DECLENSIONS.

$31. First Declension.

The first declension includes all nouns which have all their vowels immutable. It comprehends,

(a) Nouns which have "—, —, ʼn or ʼn before their final consonant; as a fish, a day, a head, "p


In a few nouns which would seem to belong to (a), the quiescents are treated as fulcra. Such belong to Dec. IV. e.g. Num. 25: 15. Pseu

do-Jon. instead of 28.

(b) Nouns which have

good, a thief.


in their final syllable; as

Note 1. Nouns with in the ultimate are chiefly of six classes. (1) Nouns derived from verbs i; e. g. bp,, (Heb. bip, bib); (2) Nouns of the form and, thy, (Heb. □iby);

(3) Nouns of the form bp, (Arabic, Heb. with impure); (4) Nouns like bep, (Heb. with – pure), and bop. ;

(5) Nouns which have the formative ending; as 1 (Arab. 3); and

(6) Nouns of the form buip; as ¬xin, TḤi>.

The first three of these classes retain — in all the inflections, and consequently belong regularly to Dec. I.


Nouns of the fourth, fifth, and sixth classes sometimes take – instead of ➡ in the construct sing., and before the suff. ¡iɔ and jin. Elsewhere the is retained. The punctuation of these nouns is however variable; and as they present no other irregularity, and are not very numerous, they may better be regarded as exceptions from Dec. I. than as forming a separate declension.

Note 2. There are also a few nouns, (principally of the form biop), having Qamets in the penultimate, which are sometimes varied according to the first declension, but sometimes drop their penultimate vowel, out of the absol. sing.

32. Second declension.

The second declension includes nouns with final or either monosyllabic, or having the preceding vowels immutable; as 71, D, C, E. This – or — is drop

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Peal, e. g. 777 Gen. 3: 5. etc. are to be set down to the account of ir

regular punctuation. Analogy requires 7.

Note 3. In this declension may be reckoned, emph. N, etc. as if from

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and ji, monosyllables, as in Hebrew, take -, Zeph. 1: 17. 77 Isaiah 1: 15.

Note 4. Before 71 ore.g. Jin The form 7


Ezek. 27: 2. is peculiar.

33. Third Declension.

This declension corresponds with the sixth in Hebrew according to Prof. Stuart's arrangement, and includes all nouns which correspond to the Segholate forms in Hebrew. They may be written in Chaldee, as in Hebrew, either with two vowels, the second of which is always considered a furtive vowel; as sively in the biblical Chaldee), 2, (p); or with only one vowel, which belongs between the last two consonants; 22. They are inflected, for the most part, as in Hebrew. But,


-these forms almost exclu) חֶלֶם, מֶלֶךְ

a. In the Plural absol. the forms and become, as they do in most other inflections, and 8.

b. The form sometimes follows the

analogy of Hebrew; as

NP Dan. 2: 37; sometimes takes ; as No
ly, Hholem is retained; as, Isa. 53: 2.

Ez. 5:8. Very rare

c. In a few cases the of the form n remains moveable in its inflections; e. g. Ez. 5: 3. my Sol. S. 4: 8.


d. Nouns of the forms and in the course of inflection, generally take or under their first radical, according to the paradigm. Comp. Dan. 4: 6. 5: 12. Gen. 32: 16. Isa. 53: 2. Nouns having gutturals for their first or

and some others take עֶדֶר חֵכֶם, נֶגֶד חֲזֵי

: עַבְדָּא, עֲבֵד ;טַעֲמָא, טְעֵם second radical, naturally take -; as


e. Participles Ithpeel, with a few nouns, not properly Segholates, follow the analogy of this declension; e. g. p, inflected precisely


34. Fourth Declension.

The fourth declension includes all nouns which double the final consonant when they receive accession. They are mostly monosyllables derived from verbs. The long vowels, and (for the most part) are exchanged in the course of inflection for the corresponding short vowels. In some nouns 73, Ex. 19:23. baba, 77baba Dan. 7: 9.

צדָּא, צד; פּתָא, פַת becomes -; as

35 has in the emph. st. N etc. with the tone on the penultimate; but with suff. which draw the tone forward, in Dan. 2: 38. 7: 19.

$35. Fifth Declension.

The fifth declension includes nouns, participles, and infinitives, derived from verbs and terminating in N,

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generally appears, in the course of declension, as the third
radical, displacing the substituted in forms like .
The termination of the plural absolute is sometimes
contracted into 1. More rarely it follows the Hebrew
analogy, and terminates in ; as Job 1:13. Lam. 1: 3.
Sometimes, perhaps by mistake of transcribers, it is point-
ed; as Dan. 7: 3. Gen. 3: 15. Jeru. Tar-
gum, where the connexion decides that these forms are
masculine. In the const. and emph. plural, no trace of the
radical remains.

Note 1. Peculiar forms of this declension.
Is. 10: 2.- Plur." Lev. 19: 10.- Pl.

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Pl. with suff. 77777
Deut. 6: 3. Jer.

are sometimes regularly inflec

ted in this declension. Comp. Dan. 4: 23. 2 Sam. 13: 6. Ez. 5: 9.

But sometimes the N is dropped; as

.2 :23 .Gen מִבְכָּה .3 :3 .Josh מֶחְזֵיכוֹן .13:45

1 K. 18: 16.

2 Sam.

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