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§ 36. Sixth declension.



Here belong the derivative nouns terminating in the formative syllable" ("N_), compare § 27. 3. They are mostly gentile or patronymic nouns, or ordinal numerals.


a. These nouns, when they receive accession, change their final ▾◄ into N, which is likewise moveable, and commences a new syllable. As a consequence, – is here changed into

b. The plur. emph. terminates in, agreeing in form with the construct, as has been remarked above § 29. 3. c.

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5: 1, 5. This declension includes also some dewhich terminate in " but are not passive partipreceding decl.); e. g.


by, pl. "

ciples. (Comp. the Gen. 1: 6. Jer. T. Ps. 104: 13. 1, emph. 1, pl. 781 Jer. 19: 4.

37. Seventh declension.


The seventh declension includes all invariable feminines, i. e. all nouns with the feminine endings N," and 1, the final syllable of which commences with only one consonant; as height, counsel, a roll, goodness, a nurse.

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Whatever vowels precede this termination are immutable; so that the paradigm exhibits all the changes of these nouns in accordance with the principles stated in §§ 28, 29.

Note. In forms like a, if the penultimate be a simple syllable, the Sheva which takes the place of the final Qamets in the emphatic and suffix states singular is silent; e. g. mɛdhīnā, emph. mɛdhīntā: if the penultimate be a mixed syllable, that Sheva is vocal; as megilla, emph. megilletha.

$38. Eighth declension.

The eighth declension includes all those feminines, the final syllable of which commences with two consonants; e. g. ND a lip, N (i. q. ovoλń) a robe, "ɔ purity.

a. Nouns in & of this declension must evidently supply a vowel in the emph. and suff. states; for otherwise they would exhibit the impossible forms Nηy, nha, etc., viz. with two vocal Shevas in immediate succession. This supplied vowel is Hhireq or Pattahh, (the latter with gutturals); more rarely Seghol; e.g. ND, NADU NUN, NAON,

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Ny belongs here, and is treated as if written ; e. g. emph. st. N but the vowel of the first syllable is dropped for the sake of euphony.

b. The paradigm b. comprises all feminines in , derived from verbs, which have a consonant without a vowel, immediately preceding this termination. The supplied vowel is Hhireq, in which "qui


c. Those in and are regular in the sing. like Dec. VII. In the plur., as becomes necessary, they also take a supplied vowel, Hhireq or Pattahh.

$39. Ninth declension.

Here belong feminines in

derived from masculines In the emphatic

in of Dec. VI. Comp. § 28. 1. Note 1.

state and before suffixes, is exchanged for moveable, though ordinal numerals, for the most part, take "— or

or entirely drop it; e. g. Ny Deut. 15:9.

or "

Lev. 25:22.

v. 12. (but comp.

7, Dan.

occasionally ap

7: 19.) The same substitution of

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pears even in the absolute and construct plural; as 775 Gen. 13: 15.

Note 1. As in Hebrew, the fem. forms are sometimes so mixed that the singular is of one declension and the plural of another; e. g.

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Note 2. When feminine nouns are formed from masculines by adding the terminations —, and —, the changes in the ground-form are precisely the same which appear in the emph. st. of masculines. Note 3. Segholates in n are rare. They are inflected precisely as in Hebrew.


$ 40. Irregular and defective nouns.


These are doubtless such as were in most frequent use. The following are the principal. N,N, ON, NON, UN, "ON, IN, NON, DE, na, na, bn, bo, 71, No123, D2,

Their anomalies are .שום or שם and רִישׁ, קְרִי, פִירִי

given in the vocabulary.

§ 41. Adjectives.

The most frequent forms of adjectives are

and ; less usual are flected like nouns.

§ 64.

קְטִיל, קָטֵל -They are in .קוּטָל and קְטֶל

For the comparison of adjectives see

Note. Adjectives of the first, third, and fourth declensions have their feminines generally declined according to the seventh; those of the second and fifth, according to the eighth; and those of the sixth, according to the ninth.

$42. Numerals.

1. Cardinals. a. These, from 3 to 10, present the same anomaly as in Hebrew, the masculines being indicated by fem. forms, and the feminines by masc. forms. See Par. XI.

Note. 17; e.g. 7


sometimes takes suffixes, and then appears in the form
both of them, Gen. 2: 25. in both of you, Gen.

b. From 11 to 19. The units are prefixed toy for the masc., and toy for the fem. It must be remarked however, (1) That the units appear somewhat different from the regular form, (comp. the paradigm), and (2) That, in the later Targums, the units and or are contracted into one word. These forms are presented in the paradigm in parentheses.

c. The tens from 30 to 90 are, as in Hebrew, simple plurals of the units 3—9; e. g. 7 thirty, forty, etc. Eighty is some

what irregular viz. 12 [i. e. 122] or 72, Jer. 41: 5. Twenty is expressed by the plural of ten, 70 or 777. masc. in form, these are all of the common gender.

Ex. 7: 7.


d. The intermediate numbers 21-29, 31-39, etc. are expressed by simply placing the smaller number after the larger, connected by 1;

.twenty one, etc עַסְרִין יַחֲדָא .fem, עַסְרִין וְחַד .e. g. masc 400,תְלָת מְאָה 300, מָאתָן, מָאתַיִן 200, מְאָה e. One hundred

, etc. the prefixed units being feminine; 1000, 2000

; etc. the prefixed units being masculine ,תְּלָתָא אַלְפִין 3000, תְּרִין אַלְפִין .11 :4 .Jon , תַּרְתָּא עַסְרֵי רִבְוָן 120,000, רִבּוֹ 10,000

.(שְׁנַיִם .comp. Heb), תִּנְיָן second

2. Ordinals. The first two have peculiar forms, viz. first ",

a. From third to tenth they are formed by adding to the cardinals (N) for the masc., and Nn or ŋ for the fem.

b. From eleventh to nineteenth the units are prefixed to "", contracted into one word; e. g. "

twelfth, etc.


eleventh, Num. 25: 8. "No"77

c. Above 20, as in Heb., cardinals and ordinals are the same. For the mode of designating distributives and numeral adverbs see § 65. 4, 5.



§ 43. Adverbs.

1. The following are primitive; where?" when?

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3. Other parts of speech used adverbially;

a. Substantives, either with prepositions; as in short, short

ly, spa in truth, truly, 777 immediately; or without them; as

wholly, below.

b. Verbal forms, viz. Inf. and Part.; as 2 backwards, n again, once more.

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c. Adjectives, numerals, and pronouns; e. g. j? [firm] truly, thus, etc. NT [as one] together, [like what?] how! how very!

[to here] עַד־כָּה ? ohen אֵימָתַי ? hoo אֵיכְדֵין ;Compound adverbs .4 לָא] לֵית,thence מִתַּם ? whence מֵהֵיכָא,from here] hence] מִכָּה,hitherto

n] there is not. For the mode in which the last, as well as ny, takes pronominal suffixes, see § 8. 3. II. Note 4.

5. A simple question is expressed by the prefix, (before a consonant with Sheva, simple or composite, ). Pronouns or adverbs express an interrogative sense by prefixing "; e. g. 72" whence?" who? comp. §9. 3. Before interrogative adverbs " is intensive; as "n", to which I believe our language has nothing precisely equivalent, unless it be the questionable phrase, where in the world?

$ 44. Prepositions.

1. The following are originally prepositions: (a) The inseparable,, and

prefixed to nouns ; before a word, the first letter of which has a composite Sheva,

and pointed with before simple Sheva; as

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In לעני, כאנט with a corresponding short vowel; as

the latter case, contraction sometimes takes place; as

.23 :5 .Dan לֵאלָהָא

which, כְּוֶת, כְּמָת לְוָת The separable monosyllables (6)

They take pro577 with me.

before nouns, appear as separate words. nominal suffixes without change; as 45773

Instead of prefix, appears the separate form, Sol. S. 1: 9. 13. 3 2. Words employed as prepositions but originally nouns or other parts of speech; viz. & without, (compounded of the adv. 2 and 2), 72 [part] from, of, and before, 7 between, instead of, ning under, bay and on account of. These, (with the exception of the first,) and some others, are originally nouns, and conform to the analogy of nouns, in receiving suffixes; sometimes,

a. Having feminine forms; e. g. masc. form before in and i; or

. But a retains the

b. Having plural forms; e. g. 7, 27, inne, etc. 3. Compound prepositions; 72, bapt, agba.

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