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$45. Conjunctions.

1. Primitive conjunctions are and, as, that (before Fut.), 71 if, since, because, i or. Borrowed from other parts of speech

עַד דִי ,that not דִּלְמָא or דִי לָא that. Compounded דִי so לָהֵן,but בְּרַם

until, and because, by therefore, after.

?

7

2. The inseparable conjunctions 2,7, and are prefixed like the prepositions, $ 44.1. a. Vav, before consonants with Sheva, also before, , and, is pointed. When is prefixed to the Fut. the preforma tive of the latter is dropped; e. g. op instead of bp. See below § 50. 2.

§ 46. Interjections.

1. These are for the most part primitive; e. g. lo! ", " would that! oh that!" wo! (comp. Lat. vae).

2. Some are borrowed from other parts of speech; e. g. 2 come on! (Imp. from 7), I pray! [lit. in entreaty], biawo! (from ban to destroy).

PART III.

SYNTAX,

CHAP. I.

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS.

$47. Personal Pronouns.

1. The separate pronouns sometimes supply the place of the substantive verb, or at least render the use of that verb unnecessary; e. g. 17 we are [lit. we they], Ez. 5:11; N NINI [am] the seer, 1 Sam. 9: 19. Most frequently is the verb omitted when the pronoun is joined to a participle.

T -:

The reason of this omission of the substantive verb, in such cases, seems to be this. These pronouns have a certain strength, an inherent emphasis, (so to speak), unattainable in English, on account of the frequency with which we are compelled to use them in the ordinary inflection of verbs.

2. The suffixes are used in Chaldee as in Hebrew, comp. Heb. Gr. §§ 470-472. The pleonastic use of suffixes, where the noun to which they relate immediately follows, is more frequent here than in Hebrew. Heb. Gram. §§ 543–545.

Note. Even the separate pronouns are sometimes used in the same

manner.

3. Anomalies likewise are the same as in Hebrew; e. g. masc. for fem. Ruth 1: 8,9, 7, (referring to the daughters-in-law of Naomi); suff. of pl. nouns appended to sing. nouns, as in Num. 24: 7, na his kingdom, the latter probably a result of the full orthography, being only a mater lectionis.

$48. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns.

1. The relative pronoun, (as a prefix ), corresponds to the Hebrew; e.g. with noun suff. forming a Gen., daun 82 17, WHOSE language thou shalt not understand; with the adverb of place, 72..., sometimes -Hebrew D...., where.

2. The interrogative appears as a Genitive, where a noun immediately precedes it in the construct state; e. g. 12 2 WHOSE daughter art thou? Gen. 24: 23.

49. Mode of designating pronouns for which specific forms do not occur in Chaldee.

1. Reflexive and reciprocal. These senses are indicated,

a. Simply by passive verbs;

b. By the personal pronouns; e. g. Judg. 20: 40. The Benjamites looked in behind them [i. e. behind themselves, the English_usage being analogous].

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c. By,

or

myself,

; e. g. upon thyself, Ex. 9:14; 2 Gen. 18: 12, Sarah laughed within herself. So 2 himself, Ruth 3: 8.

2. Indefinite. Some one

, something Dan,

also, לָא מְדַעַם mothing, לָא חַד, לָא אֲנָשׁ So no one . מִדַּעַם and (דָּבָר .6 :6 Job לָא מִידֵי

(=Hebrew

3. Demonstrative. Sometimes by N, N, or with the Hebrew

A peculiar mode of designating the same idea- הַהִיא, הַהוּא article

is to attach a suffix to the preceding word; e. g. 12 Dan. 3:8, at that time, (lit. in it, the time), comp. 72

Sol. S. 1: 13.

Other forms might be mentioned, but they will occasion no difficulty which the analogy of the Hebrew will not readily solve.

CHAP. II.

SYNTAX OF VERBS.

$ 50. Use of the tenses.

1. The same variety of signification exists here as in Hebrew. Thus the Praeter sometimes, (especially in verbs of existence or condition,) corresponds to our Pres

ent, sometimes to our Pluperfect; and the Future to the Optative, Subjunctive, or Imperative mood. It sometimes expresses even past time. This use of the Future is more common than in Hebrew. Comp. Dan. 4: 9, 33. 2. When the Future is used in an Optative, Imperative, or Subjunctive sense, it not unfrequently takes the prefix that, ut, and the preformative falls out; e. g. 1775 thy presents be to thyself, Dan. 5: 17. 3772, with the beasts of the field shall be thy dwelling, Dan. 5: 22. Though in the latter case Gesenius (Lehrgeb. p. 787), considers as Inf. instead of compares the frequent use of the Infinitive for finite tenses in Hebrew. Comp. Heb. Gram. § 543. To this use of with the Fut., corresponds entirely the Arabic J, Rosenmüller's Inst. ad fundam. Ling. Arab. p. 331. Compare also the French que.

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§ 51. Peculiar mode of designating certain finite tenses.

1. A Pluperfect is formed, in the later Targums, by prefixing to the Praeter; e. g. PD he had gone

out.

The Arabic has a similar usage.

2. A kind of Paulo-post-future, to be about to do any thing, is expressed by prefixing 7 [ready] to the Inf. with; e. g., Jehovah is about to punish, i. e. will speedily punish; by ; e. g. Nu

Gen. 15: 12, the sun was just about setting. In the latter construction, the sense of the Inf. active sometimes becomes passive; e. g. Deut. 31: 17. 27 they shall speedily be destroyed.

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וִיהוֹן

§ 52. Use of the Imperative and Infinitive.

1. Of two Imperatives connected by 1, the second

must often be rendered by the Future, being a promise,

of which the first was the condition. So in English we say Do and live, i. e. If ye will do, ye shall live. See Heb. Gram. § 505. a.

2. The use of the Inf. governed by verbs indicating desire, purpose, &c. and sometimes by nouns, with (or without), is more frequent than in Hebrew; e. g. Ex. 2: 15.

: it is not time to collect. ş is sometimes omitted, especially when the Infinitive is governed by a noun; as Josh. 10: 27. waw 3yna 77, the time of sun-set.

In other respects these moods are employed as in Hebrew.

לָא אִידֵן לְמַכְנַט .7 :29 .he sought to kill; Gen בְּעָא לְמִקְטָל

$ 53. Use of Participles. 1. Participles joined (a), To the substantive verbs, indicate generally the Imperfect; as 1917 7117 Dan. 2: 31, Thou sawest [or, wast looking]; also with the Future, 7477 , 77777 Ruth 1:20, Ye shall not call [be in the habit of calling] me Naomi.

The same indefiniteness seems to be given to the sense, as in the corresponding construction in English. This usage is more frequent in Chaldee than in Hebrew. (6) Joined to the personal pronouns and 778, they designate generally the Present tense, sometimes others; e. g. NX 307 Gen. 32: 11. I was afraid, Jna DN pin Judg. 6: 36, if thou wilt save.

Note. Sometimes the subst. verb is omitted in this construction ; e. g. Job 1: 13. 7'nu??? ning his sons (were) eating and drinking.

2. Participles govern nouns ; either, (a) In the Genitive, the participle being in the construct state; as 1 K. 2: 7, those who eat at thy table; or, (6) In the case governed by the verb from which they are derived; as 74674972 70"??Ex. 25: 20, stretching out their wings.

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