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$54. Optative mood.

This is indicated in Chaldee, either,

a. By the simple future (compare § 50); or,

b. By questions expressing desire; e. g. Judg. 9:29,

who will deliver this people to me? i. e. would that this people were under my control. Especially is the formula 1 722 (comp. Heb. 72) employed in this optative sense; e. g. Deut. 28: 67, 12, Oh

that it were evening, lit. who will give evening ?

c. By with the Future, when the wish respects future time; as TEAR DR, may he stand before thee! Gen.17: 18.-With the Praeter when the wish regards time past; e. g. Num. 20: 3, N, Oh that we had died!

§ 55. Agreement of the verb with its subject.

1. The general principles, as well as most anomalies, are the same here as in Hebrew. See Heb. Gram. § 479, seq.

2. When a verb has several predicates it is generally put in the plural, comp. Heb. Gram. §§ 481, 493. Sometimes however, especially when the verb precedes the predicates, it is singular; so Gen. 8: 16. Num. 20: 11.

$56. Impersonal verbs and verbs with indefinite Nominatives.

1. Impersonal verbs are, as in Hebrew (comp. Heb. Grammar § 498), simply the third person singular of personal verbs without any Nominative. They also take a Dative; e. g. 1 Sam. 30: 6.777, David was distressed.

2. To express the idea of a verb with an indefinite Nominative;

(a) The 3d person singular is sometimes employed exactly as in impersonal verbs; e. g. (some one) to Joseph ;


(b) The 3d pers. plur.; which frequently must be

rendered by the passive; e. g. Dan. 4: 13. [English Version 4: 16.] let his heart be changed,` lit. let them change his heart.

(c) The 2d per. sing. sometimes expresses the same idea, Is. 41: 12.

(d) Also the plur. Part.; as 7 Dan. 3: 4, it is spoken.

$57. Regimen of Verbs.

The use of the simple Accusative or Dative, of two accusatives, and of verbs with prepositions, may be learned from the Hebrew analogy. Comp. Heb. Gr. SS 508-513.

§ 58. Verbs used for Adverbs.

In Chaldee, as in Hebrew (comp. Heb. Gr. §533), two verbs are often so connected that one of them may be best translated by an adverb. The verbs most commonly so employed are to add, for again,

p to precede, to hasten, for

more; to make good, for well; for before; to return, for again; quickly; e. g. 7, Isaac digged again (lit. returned and digged) the wells, Gen. 26. 18.

So in English we say, make haste and come, for come quickly.

$59. Constructio praegnans and Ellipsis.

1. Constructio praegnans. Comp. Heb. Gr. § 566.

and Jehovah changed (his ,וְשֵׁנִי לֵיהּ יְיָ לִבָּא אוֹחֲרָנָא

heart and gave) to him another heart. 1 Sam. 10:9.

2. Ellipsis is not frequent. Ps. 120: 7.75 IN p?, I (desire) peace, they (are) for war.




the king's שׁלִיטָא דִי מַלְכָּא ,the king of the earth דְאַרְעָא

$ 60. Designation of cases. 1. The Genitive is indicated,

(a) As in Hebrew, by the const. state of the preceding noun; e. g. 1932 n the words of the king.

(6) By the prefix ? (or "T), in which case the preceding word is ordinarily in the emphatic state; e. g. Na

, 7 captain, Dan. 2: 15.

(c) In designations of time, by }; e. g. 877??? " Gen. 8: 5. the day of the month; 2 Kings 12: 1, now? 8973, var in the seventh year of Jehu.

Note 1. The case b. may be compared with the Hebrew, and u be regarded as a real relative; thus ??? "I nu might be rendered the captain who (belonged to) the king. Apa might be regarded as a Dative (being omitted by ellipsis), or as a Genitive governed by "7 in the construct state.

Note 2. In the later Targums the characteristic prefix of the Genitive is sometimes omitted; e. g. Esth. 1: 9, AT muna banquet of the

In some instances, on the other hand, the characteristic of the Genitive case (1) is inserted after a noun in the construct state.

Note 3. The form of the construct, especially of the const. pl., sometimes appears in the Targums instead of the absolute; e. g. Gen. 1; 10, the collections of water a 477, he called seas.

2. As in Hebrew, ?, prefixed forms the Dative.

3. The Accusative takes either , (like the Syriac,— and this is almost universal in the Targum on Proverbs); or (i. q. Heb. 88); or it has the simple form of the Nominative.

4. The Vocative is generally expressed by the form of the emphatic state.


§ 61. Peculiar use of the cases.

1. The Genitive is often employed instead of an adjective qualifying the preceding noun; e. g. Dan. 3: 5. ND an image of gold, i. e. a golden image.

Note 1. Sometimes the first noun qualifies the second; e. g. ipn with a strong hand-lit. with strength of hand.

Note 2. The Hebrew student will not be disappointed to meet in Chaldee with phrases like Gen. 37: 19, lit. master of dreams, i. e. interpreter of dreams; son of a year, i. e. a year old.

2. The Accusative of place answers the question, where? and must consequently be translated by at or in. The simple Accusative is also sometimes employed, by synecdoche where we must render, in respect of; e.g. ruddy in respect to complexion, or of a ruddy complexion, Lam. 4: 7.

This construction is less frequent in Chaldee than in Hebrew. Instead of it the Targums sometimes employ.

3. The case absolute, either the Nom. (which is most frequent), the Acc., or even sometimes the Dat. (with signifying quoad), is employed as in Hebrew. Comp. Heb. Gr. §§ 415–417.

$62. Use of the plural and repetition of nouns.

1. The plural is sometimes employed where only one of the things designated is meant. Judg. 12: 7, Jephthah was buried, 77, in one of the cities of Gilead; Gen. 8: 4, The ark rested on one of the mountains, etc.

.are employed as plurals of excellence or respect רִבּוֹנִין and מָרִין .2

On the other hand 7 has always a plural sense. In the biblical
Chaldee only, occurs 7, the Most High, as a name of God, Dan. 7:


3. The double members, etc., which in Hebrew require the dual, are designated in Chaldee by the plural. When the dual in Hebrew is employed to designate definitely two persons or things, it is rendered in

. תְּרִין Chaldee by the plural with

4. The immediate repetition of a noun indicates,

a. Multitude. Gen. 14: 10, 77772 77772 many wells.

b. Partition or separation, expressed by each, etc.; as Gen. 32: 16, Teach particular herd; Esth. 3: 4, Ni Ni” every day.

$63. Construction of adjectives.

1. Exceptions from the general principle "that adjectives agree with the substantives which they qualify in gender and number" are the same as in Hebrew. Comp. Heb. Gr. § 449.

2. When an adjective is the predicate of the sentence, it stands generally after the noun. Rarely, and only when the substantive verb

is omitted, it precedes.

3. Adjectives used as simple epithets, follow their nouns.

4. The neuter gender is usually expressed by feminine adjectives; Ps. 27: 4. None thing have I desired.

5. An adjective is put in the construct state before a noun expressing the thing in respect to which the quality is affirmed; e. g. Prov. 16: 19.b of a humble spirit, lit. humble of spirit.

$64. Comparison of adjectives.

1. The comparative is formed, either (a) By 12 simply, as in Hebrew; or

(b) By inserting 1" or " (abundant, but here in the sense of more) before 12; e. g. Ps. 119: 103. 122 sweeter than honey, lit. sweet more than etc. 2. The superlative is designated as in Hebrew. Comp. Heb. Gr. § 455. Lev. 24: 9. the highest heav

en; etc.

$65. Numerals.

1. Numerals from 1 to 10 are placed either before or after nouns. Gen. 8: 10. 7. Dan. 3: 24. 17724 snbn.

2. From 11 to 100 the numerals precede the substantive in the plural. Jud. 11: 33. 7777777. But the tens sometimes follow their substantives. Gen. 32: 14.

Note 1. In a few instances the substantive appears in the construct state before its numeral. 1 K. 8: 63. nia7 77887 1070 "zin 220,000 oxen. Comp. § 60. 1. note 3.

Note 2. When n precedes the numeral, the noun is in the emph. st. ; e. g. Gen. 1: 16.


the two great lights.

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