« IndietroContinua »
sed plerumque regiae voluntates ut vehementes sic mobiles, 2 saepe ipsae sibi advorsae. postea tempore et loco constituto in colloquium uti de pace veniretur, Bocchus Sullam modo modo Iugurthae legatum appellare, benigne habere, idem ambobus polliceri. illi pariter laeti ac spei bonae pleni esse. 5 3 sed nocte ea, quae proxuma fuit ante diem colloquio decretum, Maurus adhibitis amicis ac statim inmutata voluntate remotis dicitur secum ipse multum agitavisse, voltu et oculis pariter atque animo varius: quae scilicet tacente ipso occulta 4 pectoris patefecisse. tamen postremo Sullam accersi iubet et 10 5 ex illius sententia Numidae insidias tendit. deinde ubi dies advenit et ei nuntiatum est Iugurtham haud procul abesse, cum paucis amicis et quaestore nostro quasi obvius honoris causa procedit in tumulum facillumum visu insidiantibus. 6 eodem Numida cum plerisque necessariis suis inermis, uti 15 dictum erat, adcedit ac statim signo dato undique simul ex insidiis invaditur. ceteri obtruncati, Iugurtha Sullae vinctus traditur et ab eo ad Marium deductus est.
114. Per idem tempus advorsum Gallos ab ducibus nostris 2 Q. Caepione et Cn. Manlio male pugnatum. quo metu Italia 20 omnis contremuit. illimque usque ad nostram memoriam Romani sic habuere, alia omnia virtuti suae prona esse, cum 3 Gallis pro salute non pro gloria certari. sed postquam bellum in Numidia confectum et Iugurtham Romam vinctum adduci nuntiatum est, Marius consul absens factus est et ei decreta 25 provincia Gallia isque calendis Ianuariis magna gloria consul 4 triumphavit. et ea tempestate spes atque opes civitatis in illo sitae.
THE CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY.
THE grammarians variously refer to this treatise as the Catilina, Catilinae bellum, Catilinae historia, Catilinarium bellum, and Catilinarium. The MSS. have also different titles for it.
Quintilian remarks that the prefaces of Sallust are inappropriate, 'nihil ad historiam pertinentibus principiis orsus est' (3. 10). He might also have criticized the undue length of the general remarks in so short a treatise.
P. 49, l. I. omnis, for the accus. plur. of i- stems, which make the gen. plur. in ium, the inscriptions from the time of the Gracchi to the death of J. Caesar give forms ending in -is, -eis, -es in nearly equal proportions. The later copy of the old Columna rostrata of the First Punic War has 'Cartaciniensis,' 'claseis,' and 'navales,' pointing thus to indecision in early times. The original termination seems to have been -ins, shortened afterwards into -is, and then passing into -eis, and finally after the Augustan Age into -es. But in consonantal stems the acc. plur. seems to have ended in -es from early times: thus we have 'opsides' (soon after 290 B. C.), 'pedes' (133 to 121 B.C.), 'homines,' 'leges,' 'patres,' etc. (Corssen, Aussprache, 1. 740).
sese student. The use of the pronoun with verbs like 'studere,' 'velle,' 'cupere,' though uncommon, is found in Cicero, as De Off. 2. 20, 7, 'ille tenuis ... gratum se videri studet,' as well as in older writers like Caelius Antipater (ap. Festum), 'ita uti sese quisque vobis studeat aemulari,' or Plautus, Asin. 1. 3, 'vult placere sese amicae.'
1. 2. silentio, 'unnoticed.' Cf. Tac. Agr. 6. 4, 'idem praeturae tenor et silentium.'
vitam transeant, an unusual phrase for 'degere vitam.' Cf. Tac. Agr. 6. 5, 'tribunatus annum quiete et otio transit.'
1. 3. prona, 'earth-regarding,' as amplified by Juvenal (15. 147), 'Cuius egent prona et terram spectantia.'
1. 4. sed. The inscriptions before 45 B.C. commonly show a final d in words like 'sed,' 'apud,' ' aliud,' but towards the end of the Republic the d seems to take a thinner sound, and t appears in its place; thus 'set,' 'haut,' become more frequent in the inscriptions of the Empire. Dietsch always prefers the form 'set' in the text of Sallust, but on insufficient evidence.
1. 5. corporis servitio, enlarged by Seneca: 'Quem in hoc mundo locum Deus obtinet, hunc in homine animus: quod est illic materia, id nobis corpus est: serviant ergo deteriora melioribus' (Ep. Mor. 65).
1. 6. quo.. rectius. Kritz would make 'quo' qualify 'rectius,' as in Jug. 85. 6, and explains it by an ellipse, 'quanto dii praestant belluis, tanto rectius videtur, ingeni quam,' etc. Gründel (Quaestiones Sall. p. 6) compares the passages where 'eo' is used like 'ideo,' as Cat. 20. 3, 'Sed quia . . . eo animus ausus est;' and with a comparative, as Cat. 13. 5, ‘animus... carebat, eo profusius omnibus modis ... sumptui deditus erat,' and decides that 'quo' is also used in this and other passages for 'and therefore.'
1. 10. fluxa atque fragilis, 'fleeting and frail.'
By virtue Sallust meant much the same as the Italians of the Renaissance, the habit of keeping worthy objects in sight, and being strenuous in pursuit of them,' Simcox, Lat. Lit. 1. 220. Cf. below, 2. 9.
habetur, not merely 'is accounted' but is a possession.' Cf. 'audacia pro muro habetur' (58. 17).
1. II. mortalis. Sallust has a special affection for this word, both with and without multi,' while Cicero commonly uses it with the epithet 'multi' or 'omnes.' It is constantly used by him, as by Livy and Tacitus, as a sonorous equivalent for 'homines,' and the attempts to trace a different shade of meaning seem to fail. Fronto (in Aul. Gell. 13. 28) discusses its use in the old annalist Claudius Quadrigarius, and decides that it is employed paтikάтepov, 'amplius,' 'prolixius,'
certamen, as in some measure in the old dispute between Ajax and Ulysses. Cf. Macaulay's History, vol. iv. 409: 'Never perhaps was the change which the progress of civilization has produced in the art of war more strikingly illustrated than on that day. Ajax beating down the Trojan leader with a rock which two ordinary men could scarcely lift, Horatius defending the bridge against an army. Such are the heroes of a dark age. At Landen two poor sickly beings, who in a rude state of society would have been regarded as too puny to bear any part in combats, were the souls of two great armies. Men had discovered that the strength of the muscles is far inferior in value to the strength of the mind. It is probable that among the hundred
and twenty thousand soldiers who were marshalled round Neerwinden under all the standards of Western Europe, the two feeblest in body were the hunch-backed dwarf who urged forward the fiery onset of France, and the asthmatic skeleton who covered the slow retreat of England.'
procederet, for 'prospere cedere,' as 'agitanti nihil procedit' (27. 3) and (Cato de R. R. 148) 'totidem dies emptori procedent.'
1. 13. consulto.. facto, the neuter abl. of partic. used as an infin. The passage itself may be a reminiscence of Arist. Eth. 6. 9, 2 πpáτTELV δεῖν ταχὺ τὰ βουλευθέντα, βουλεύεσθαι δὲ βραδέως ; or of Thuc. I. 70, 8 ἔχουσι . . . . . . ἃ ἂν ἐπινοήσωσι, διὰ τὸ ταχεῖαν τὴν ἐπιχείρησιν ποιεῖσθαι ὧν ἂν γνῶσι.
1. 14. utrumque, by 'constructio ad sensum,' referred to the two alternatives of the foregoing sentence; as Jug. 7. 5, ‘proelio strenuus erat et bonus consilio, quorum alterum ex providentia timorem, alterum ex audacia temeritatem adferre solet.'
1. 15. eget offended early editors, who changed it to 'veget,' because of the seeming repetition after 'indigens;' but the participle is not taken immediately with the verb, both are of themselves incomplete and each needs the other's help.'
c. 2. reges.. pars. . alii.. exercebant. For this apposition of whole and parts cf. Jug. 104. 3, 'Mauri . . . tres ... duo redeunt.'
1. 16. divorsi retains its participial meaning, as Livy 10. 44, 4, 'Itaque diversi, Papirius ad Sepinum Carvilius ad Veliam oppugnandam legiones ducunt.'
pars is frequently opposed by Sallust to 'alii,' 'multi,' 'pauci,' in order to give liveliness to the sentence, and it is often directly connected with masculine adjectives and plural verbs by a 'constructio ad sensum.'
1. 17. cupiditate. This form is rarely used by Sallust, who prefers 'cupido,' which Cicero and Caesar avoid.
agitabatur. This is the most common of the favourite frequentatives of Sallust, and is used with 'imperium,' 'pacem,' 'bellum,' 'gaudium,' etc., or even without a case, where other writers would employ a less expressive term. Cf. a passage of Tacitus possibly suggested by this (Ann. 3. 26, 1), 'Vetustissimi mortalium nulla adhuc mala libidine, sine probro, scelere eoque sine poena aut coercitionibus agebant.'
1. 19. Cyrus. The Roman writers of this time had little knowledge of the earlier empires of the East, and Sallust therefore speaks as if history were a blank before the times of Cyrus. Herodotus might at least have told him of the fame of the Assyrian and Median empires, to say nothing of the Lydian monarchy and its conquests on the west of Asia Minor.
1. 21. maxumam. The older inscriptions of the Republic generally