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THE CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY.
THE grammarians variously refer to this treatise as the Catilina, Catilinae bellum, Catilinae historia, Catilinarium bellum, and Catilinarium. The MSS. have also different titles for it.
Quintilian remarks that the prefaces of Sallust are inappropriate, 'nihil ad historiam pertinentibus principiis orsus est' (3. 10). He might also have criticized the undue length of the general remarks in so short a treatise.
P. 49, l. I. omnis, for the accus. plur. of i- stems, which make the gen. plur. in ium, the inscriptions from the time of the Gracchi to the death of J. Caesar give forms ending in -is, -eis, -es in nearly equal proportions. The later copy of the old Columna rostrata of the First Punic War has 'Cartaciniensis,' 'claseis,' and 'navales,' pointing thus to indecision in early times. The original termination seems to have been -ins, shortened afterwards into -is, and then passing into -eis, and finally after the Augustan Age into -es. But in consonantal stems the acc. plur. seems to have ended in -es from early times: thus we have 'opsides' (soon after 290 B. C.), 'pedes' (133 to 121 B.C.), 'homines,' 'leges,' 'patres,' etc. (Corssen, Aussprache, 1. 740).
sese student. The use of the pronoun with verbs like 'studere,' 'velle,' 'cupere,' though uncommon, is found in Cicero, as De Off. 2. 20, 7, 'ille tenuis ... gratum se videri studet,' as well as in older writers like Caelius Antipater (ap. Festum), 'ita uti sese quisque vobis studeat aemulari,' or Plautus, Asin. 1. 3, 'vult placere sese amicae.'
1. 2. silentio, 'unnoticed.' Cf. Tac. Agr. 6. 4, 'idem praeturae tenor et silentium.'
vitam transeant, an unusual phrase for 'degere vitam.' Cf. Tac. Agr. 6. 5, 'tribunatus annum quiete et otio transit.'
1. 3. prona, 'earth-regarding,' as amplified by Juvenal (15. 147), 'Cuius egent prona et terram spectantia.'
1. 4. sed. The inscriptions before 45 B.C. commonly show a final d in words like 'sed,' 'apud,' ' aliud,' but towards the end of the Republic the d seems to take a thinner sound, and t appears in its place; thus 'set,' 'haut,' become more frequent in the inscriptions of the Empire. Dietsch always prefers the form 'set' in the text of Sallust, but on insufficient evidence.
1. 5. corporis servitio, enlarged by Seneca: 'Quem in hoc mundo locum Deus obtinet, hunc in homine animus: quod est illic materia, id nobis corpus est: serviant ergo deteriora melioribus' (Ep. Mor. 65).
1. 6. quo.. rectius. Kritz would make 'quo' qualify 'rectius,' as in Jug. 85. 6, and explains it by an ellipse, 'quanto dii praestant belluis, tanto rectius videtur, ingeni quam,' etc. Gründel (Quaestiones Sall. p. 6) compares the passages where 'eo' is used like 'ideo,' as Cat. 20. 3, 'Sed quia . . . eo animus ausus est;' and with a comparative, as Cat. 13. 5, ‘animus... carebat, eo profusius omnibus modis ... sumptui deditus erat,' and decides that 'quo' is also used in this and other passages for 'and therefore.'
1. 10. fluxa atque fragilis, 'fleeting and frail.'
By virtue Sallust meant much the same as the Italians of the Renaissance, the habit of keeping worthy objects in sight, and being strenuous in pursuit of them,' Simcox, Lat. Lit. 1. 220. Cf. below, 2. 9.
habetur, not merely 'is accounted' but is a possession.' Cf. 'audacia pro muro habetur' (58. 17).
1. II. mortalis. Sallust has a special affection for this word, both with and without multi,' while Cicero commonly uses it with the epithet 'multi' or 'omnes.' It is constantly used by him, as by Livy and Tacitus, as a sonorous equivalent for 'homines,' and the attempts to trace a different shade of meaning seem to fail. Fronto (in Aul. Gell. 13. 28) discusses its use in the old annalist Claudius Quadrigarius, and decides that it is employed paтikάтepov, 'amplius,' 'prolixius,'
certamen, as in some measure in the old dispute between Ajax and Ulysses. Cf. Macaulay's History, vol. iv. 409: 'Never perhaps was the change which the progress of civilization has produced in the art of war more strikingly illustrated than on that day. Ajax beating down the Trojan leader with a rock which two ordinary men could scarcely lift, Horatius defending the bridge against an army. Such are the heroes of a dark age. At Landen two poor sickly beings, who in a rude state of society would have been regarded as too puny to bear any part in combats, were the souls of two great armies. Men had discovered that the strength of the muscles is far inferior in value to the strength of the mind. It is probable that among the hundred
and twenty thousand soldiers who were marshalled round Neerwinden under all the standards of Western Europe, the two feeblest in body were the hunch-backed dwarf who urged forward the fiery onset of France, and the asthmatic skeleton who covered the slow retreat of England.'
procederet, for 'prospere cedere,' as 'agitanti nihil procedit' (27. 3) and (Cato de R. R. 148) 'totidem dies emptori procedent.'
1. 13. consulto.. facto, the neuter abl. of partic. used as an infin. The passage itself may be a reminiscence of Arist. Eth. 6. 9, 2 πpáτTELV δεῖν ταχὺ τὰ βουλευθέντα, βουλεύεσθαι δὲ βραδέως ; or of Thuc. I. 70, 8 ἔχουσι . . . . . . ἃ ἂν ἐπινοήσωσι, διὰ τὸ ταχεῖαν τὴν ἐπιχείρησιν ποιεῖσθαι ὧν ἂν γνῶσι.
1. 14. utrumque, by 'constructio ad sensum,' referred to the two alternatives of the foregoing sentence; as Jug. 7. 5, ‘proelio strenuus erat et bonus consilio, quorum alterum ex providentia timorem, alterum ex audacia temeritatem adferre solet.'
1. 15. eget offended early editors, who changed it to 'veget,' because of the seeming repetition after 'indigens;' but the participle is not taken immediately with the verb, both are of themselves incomplete and each needs the other's help.'
c. 2. reges.. pars. . alii.. exercebant. For this apposition of whole and parts cf. Jug. 104. 3, 'Mauri . . . tres ... duo redeunt.'
1. 16. divorsi retains its participial meaning, as Livy 10. 44, 4, 'Itaque diversi, Papirius ad Sepinum Carvilius ad Veliam oppugnandam legiones ducunt.'
pars is frequently opposed by Sallust to 'alii,' 'multi,' 'pauci,' in order to give liveliness to the sentence, and it is often directly connected with masculine adjectives and plural verbs by a 'constructio ad sensum.'
1. 17. cupiditate. This form is rarely used by Sallust, who prefers 'cupido,' which Cicero and Caesar avoid.
agitabatur. This is the most common of the favourite frequentatives of Sallust, and is used with 'imperium,' 'pacem,' 'bellum,' 'gaudium,' etc., or even without a case, where other writers would employ a less expressive term. Cf. a passage of Tacitus possibly suggested by this (Ann. 3. 26, 1), 'Vetustissimi mortalium nulla adhuc mala libidine, sine probro, scelere eoque sine poena aut coercitionibus agebant.'
1. 19. Cyrus. The Roman writers of this time had little knowledge of the earlier empires of the East, and Sallust therefore speaks as if history were a blank before the times of Cyrus. Herodotus might at least have told him of the fame of the Assyrian and Median empires, to say nothing of the Lydian monarchy and its conquests on the west of Asia Minor.
1. 21. maxumam. The older inscriptions of the Republic generally
prefer the u to i in suffix forms like 'maxumus,' 'aestumo,' though not invariably. The sound was an intermediate one between u and i. Quintil. 1. 4, 7, 'medius est quidam inter u et i sonus.'
1. 21. putare. It is a peculiarity of Sallust to use this word with 'in,' where other writers would have 'ponere in,' e.g. 19. 2; 43. 4; Jug. 53. 3.
1. 22. periculo atque negotiis, perhaps a translation of the μerà πόνων καὶ κινδύνων of Thuc. I. 70, 9.
1. 23. imperatorum, not to be taken here in the technical sense in Roman usage of 'military commanders,' but generally of 'rulers' like 'imperium' above, which in its strict sense implies the power of life and death as compared with the civil 'potestas.'
P. 50, 1. 1. aequabilius, etc. Imitated by Tacitus (Ann. 15. 21, 5), 'quae si arceantur aeq. atque const. provinciae regentur.'
1. 4. artibus, a very favourite word of Sallust for 'practices,' 'course of action.' So Livy (Praef. 6), 'per quos viros, quibusque artibus domi militiaeque et partum et auctum imperium sit.'
1. 6. invasere, here as 10. 6 absolutely: more often with acc. of the object, as 5. 6; Jug. 32. 4. Cicero connects a prepos. with it.
1. 9. quae arant, etc., "the labours of the plough,' etc. 'Quae' like ὅσα.
1. 10. parent. Cf. Hor. Sat. 2. 3, 94, ‘Omnis enim res | virtus, fama, decus divina humanaque pulcris | divitiis parent.'
dediti ventri atque somno, imitated by Tac. Germ. 15. 1, ‘dediti somno ciboque.'
1. II. peregrinantes.
Corssen (1. 776) explains 'peregri' as a
locative 'in other lands,' composed of 'per' and 'ager,' the 'per' being as in 'periurus,' 'perendie,' 'perperam,' connected with the Sansk. 'paras,' 'other,' or the Oscan 'perum'='sundered.' From this comes our word 'pilgrim,' but the associations of the Biblical phrase 'strangers and pilgrims' are very unlike those of the text. Cf. Seneca Ep. 90, 'hoc a me exige, ne velut per tenebras aevum ignobile emetiar, ut agam vitam, non ut praetervehar.'
1. 12. contra naturam. This points perhaps to the Stoic rule of life naturae convenienter vivere,' which was interpreted in an ascetic
1. 13. aestumo, compounded of (1) 'aes,' cf. Verr. Flacc. Fest. p. 24, ' aestimata poena ab antiquis ab aere dicta est, qui eam aestimaverunt aere; the metal in common use was at first weighed as 'aes rude,' afterwards stamped, 'aes signatum': (2) 'ti-mare,' from a root found in Tíμn, titulus,' 'Titus' (cf. Corssen, Beiträge 330). With this compare sense of deliberare' from 'libra.'
1. 14. verum enimvero, a rhetorical pleonasm like 'clam furtim,'
'forte temere,' 'rursus novus de integro,' ‘non unquam alias ante,' in Livy, or 'imo enimvero' of Accius ap. Cic. Tusc. I. 44.
1. 15. negotio intentus. The abl. case presents some difficulty: in other passages, as Jug. 89. 3. ‘aliis negotiis intentum,' and 94. 3, 'intentos proelio,' the case is uncertain: in Jug. 44. 3, 'expectatione eventus civium animos intentos putabat,' the participial meaning 'strained,'' excited,' is apparent. But here also the negotio' may be taken as the cause and not merely the object of 'intentus,' and we may certainly reject the suggested 'aliquoi' as the archaic dative for ' aliquo.'
1. 16. in magna copia, as the opportunities are many,' pregnant sense of 'in' as in Jug. 14. 11, 'in imperio vestro.'
1. 17, c. 3. pulchrum. The old form of this is 'polcer,' the first syllable of which occurs in 'polire,' the second in 'ludicer,' which= 'merry-making' (Corssen, 2. 150). It occurs in inscriptions both with and without an h.
1. 18. absurdum, connected by Corssen (1. 488) with Old Lat. ‘sardare’=‘speak' or 'reason' (cf. Naevius ap. Festum, 'quod bruti nec satis sardare queant'), and with 'susurrus,' 'sorex,' σûpιys. He distinguishes it from 'surdus' from a root 'svar' (in Sansk. ' svaras' 'weight'), so 'heavy,' 'dull.'
The litotes of 'haud abs.' is like that 23. 1, 'haud obscuro loco:' or Jug. 8. 1, 'Iugurthae non mediocrem animum.'
vel pace vel bello. Where these ablatives occur separately in Sallust, they are used with the prepos. 'in,' except when there is an attribute as Jug. 5. 4, 'bello Punico secundo;' thus below (9. 4), 'quod in bello... in pace vero.'
1. 19. fecere. The official inscriptions from the time of the Gracchi to that of Caesar always kept the full form of the perfect in -erunt, and the inscriptions which have -ere were generally made in country districts. It seems therefore that the cultivated language of the city preferred the -erunt, while the common folk used the ere. Cato, Sallust, and Fronto liked the people's use, but Cicero and Caesar preferred the official form; cf. Corssen, 1. 187.
1. 21. auctorem is better attested than the 'actorem' of some MSS. It is also more idiomatic as used for the 'agent,' when regarded as the cause of his own acts; cf. Cic. Orat. 2. 47, 194, 'neque actor essem alienae personae, sed auctor meae.'
1. 22. arduum. Aul. Gellius (4. 15, 2), quoting the whole passage, says that it was objected to by some critics on the ground that the want of sympathy on the part of the readers might make the work of the historian a thankless but not a difficult task. He answers that 'arduum' is used here in the sense of 'troublesome,' dvoxepés.