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prefer the u to i in suffix forms like 'maxumus,' 'aestumo,' though not invariably. The sound was an intermediate one between u and i. Quintil. 1. 4, 7, 'medius est quidam inter u et i sonus.'

1. 21. putare. It is a peculiarity of Sallust to use this word with 'in,' where other writers would have “ponere in,' e.g. 19. 2; 43. 4; Jug. 53. 3.

1. 22. periculo atque negotiis, perhaps a translation of the metà πόνων και κινδύνων of Thuc. Ι. 70, 9.

1. 23. imperatorum, not to be taken here in the technical sense in Roman usage of 'military commanders,' but generally of 'rulers’ like • imperium' above, which in its strict sense implies the power of life and death as compared with the civil 'potestas.'

P. 50, 1. 1. aequabilius, etc. Imitated by Tacitus (Ann. 15. 21, 5), 'quae si arceantur aeq. atque const. provinciae regentur.'

1. 4. artibus, a very favourite word of Sallust for 'practices,''course of action.' So Livy (Praef. 6), 'per quos viros, quibusque artibus domi militiaeque et partum et auctum imperium sit.'

1. 6. invasere, here as 10. 6 absolutely: more often with acc. of the object, as 5. 6; Jug. 32. 4. Cicero connects a prepos. with it.

1. 9. quae arant, etc., "the labours of the plough, etc. Quae' like όσα.

1. 10. parent. Cf. Hor. Sat. 2. 3, 94, ‘Omnis enim res | virtus, fama, decus divina humanaque pulcris | divitiis parent.'

dediti ventri atque somno, imitated by Tac. Germ. 15. I, .dediti somno ciboque.'

1. 11. peregrinantes. Corssen (1. 776) explains 'peregri' as a locative 'in other lands, composed of 'per' and 'ager,' the 'per' being as in “periurus,' 'perendie,' “perperam,' connected with the Sansk. paras,' other,' or the Oscan 'perum'='sundered. From this comes our word 'pilgrim,' but the associations of the Biblical phrase *strangers and pilgrims' are very unlike those of the text. Cf. Seneca Ep. 90, 'hoc a me exige, ne velut per tenebras aevum ignobile emetiar, ut agam vitam, non ut praetervehar.'

1. 12. contra naturam. This points perhaps to the Stoic rule of life naturae convenienter vivere,' which was interpreted in an ascetic

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1. 13. aestumo, compounded of (1) 'aes,' cf. Verr. Flacc. Fest. p. 24, "aestimata poena ab antiquis ab aere dicta est, qui eam aestimaverunt aere;' the metal in common use was at first weighed as 'aes rude,' afterwards stamped, 'aes signatum': (2) “ti-mare,' from a root found in Tiun, 'titulus,’ Titus' (cf. Corssen, Beiträge 330). With this compare sense of deliberare' from 'libra.'

1. 14. verum enimvero, a rhetorical pleonasm like “clam furtim,'

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forte temere,' rursus novus de integro,' .non unquam alias ante,' in Livy, or ‘imo enimvero' of Accius ap. Cic. Tusc. I. 44.

1. 15. negotio intentus. The abl. case presents some difficulty: in other passages, as Jug. 89. 3. aliis negotiis intentum,' and 94. 3, intentos proelio,' the case is uncertain : in Jug. 44. 3, "expectatione eventus civium animos intentos putabat,' the participial meaning 'strained,' • excited,' is apparent. But here also the 'negotio' may be taken as the cause and not merely the object of 'intentus,' and we may certainly reject the suggested aliquoi' as the archaic dative for 'aliquo.'

1. 16. in magna copia,' 'as the opportunities are many, pregnant sense of ‘in'as in Jug. 14. II, 'in imperio vestro.'

1. 17, c. 3. pulchrum. The old form of this is ‘polcer,' the first syllable of which occurs in 'polire,' the second in 'ludicer,' which = • merry-making' (Corssen, 2. 150). It occurs in inscriptions both with and without an h.

1. 18. absurdum, connected by Corssen (1. 488) with Old Lat. • sardare'='speak' or reason' (cf. Naevius ap. Festum, 'quod bruti nec satis sardare queant '), and with susurrus,' 'sorex,' oùpyg. He distinguishes it from ‘surdus’ from a root ‘svar' (in Sansk. 'svaras' 'weight'), so 'heavy,' `dull.'

The litotes of 'haud abs.' is like that 23. 1, 'haud obscuro loco :' or Jug. 8. 1, 'Iugurthae non mediocrem animum.'

vel pace vel bello. Where these ablatives occur separately in Sallust, they are used with the prepos. “in,' except when there is an attribute as Jug. 5.4, ' bello Punico secundo;' thus below (9.4), 'quod in bello ... in pace vero.'

1. 19. fecere. The official inscriptions from the time of the Gracchi to that of Caesar always kept the full form of the perfect in -erunt, and the inscriptions which have -ere were generally made in country districts. It seems therefore that the cultivated language of the city preferred the -erunt, while the common folk used the ere. Cato, Sallust, and Fronto liked the people's use, but Cicero and Caesar preferred the official form ; cf. Corssen, 1. 187.

1. 21. auctorem is better attested than the actorem' of some MSS. It is also more idiomatic as used for the agent,' when regarded as the cause of his own acts; cf. Cic. Orat. 2. 47, 194, 'neque actor essem alienae personae, sed auctor meae.'

1. 22. arduum. Aul. Gellius (4. 15, 2), quoting the whole passage, says that it was objected to by some critics on the ground that the want of sympathy on the part of the readers might make the work of the historian a thankless but not a difficult task. He answers that 'arduum’ is used here in the sense of troublesome,' dvoxepés.

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1. 23. exaequanda, 'to be matched,' whether by the standard of truth, as modern canons would require, or of brilliancy, on which ancient rhetoric laid more stress. Cf. Pliny, Ep. 8. 4, 3, 'una, sed maxima difficultas, quod haec aequare dicendo arduum.'

1. 24. malivolentia. The form in i seems to be more common in older inscriptions for words like 'benificium,' 'benivolentia,' etc., and the MSS. point to a preference for this spelling on the part of the older dramatists, though the fashion changed after the Augustan Age. Kritz needlessly objects to the i on a priori grounds.

ubi de magna virtute. Imitated from Thuc. 2. 35, 5 Méxpı yap τούδε ανεκτοι οι επαινοι είσι περί ετέρων λεγόμενοι, ες όσον αν και αυτός έκαστος οίηται ικανός είναι δράσαι τι ών ήκουσε το δε υπερβάλλοντι αυτών φθονούντες ήδη και άπιστουσιν.

1. 25. memores. Cicero commonly uses commemorare,' and very seldom 'memorare,' which Sallust prefers like Livy and the poets.

1. 26. supra ea. Kritz refers these words to the 'putat' in the clause before, but it seems simpler to explain it as a case of brachylogy for

ea quae supra ea sunt.' Cf. Cic. Orat. 1. 4, 'in poetis non Homero soli locus est sed horum vel secundis vel etiam infra secundos' (ap. Const.).

1. 28. adulescentulus, used as in c. 38. 1, more loosely than for the age of seventeen when the 'toga puerilis' was changed. This passage seems to have been suggested by one in the 7th of the letters ascribed to Plato; νέος ... πολλοίς δη ταυτόν έπαθον ψήθην ... επί τα κοινά της πόλεως ευθύς ιέναι. Και μου τύχαι τινες των της πόλεως πραγμάτων τοιαίδε παρέπεσον.

sicuti plerique. There were scarcely any professional careers at Rome disconnected with political life, and the only rival pursuit for men of energy and good connexions was money-making through the commercial speculations and joint-stock societies. Lawyers and soldiers were political partisans : medicine and the fine arts were left to Greeks and freedmen, and the priesthood provided no distinct career.

studio . . latus sum, 'threw myself with passion.' Cf. Cic. Rosc. Am. 32. 91, 'ut omnes intelligant me non studio accusare sed officio defendere. The a studio' of earlier editors came from a mistaken view of the meaning. For use of 'latus,' cf. 'latus odio,' Cic. pro Sestio, 52. III.

1. 29. advorsa. For the spelling, cf. Quintil. 1. 7: 'quid dicam vortices et vorsus, quae primo Scipio Africanus in E. literam secundam vertisse dicitur.'

1. 31. insolens . . artium. For construction cf. Jug. 39. 1, ‘pars insolita rerum bellicarum.'

1. 33. conrupta tenebatur. Cf. Jug. 24. 3, 'armis obsessus teneor.'

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Dietsch takes .conrupta' as an abl. agreeing with 'ambitione,' either in the sense of corrupt' or 'corrupting,' but with little warrant for either use. Steup (Rh. Mus. 1870, p. 637) suggests conrepta,' as he thinks .conrupta'too direct an admission of guilt. P. 51, 1. 1. moribus, rather behaviour' than character.'

eadem qua. The abl. 'fama' is somewhat bold, 'caused me to be dogged with the same jealous slander as the rest.' Other readings have been proposed, such as the comma after 'cupido' and the asyndeton of eadem quae' in the nom., which is supported by MS. authority; this again was improved into eademque quae.' Dietsch strangely thinks it a further improvement to read eadem eademque quae,' preserving as he thinks the balance and euphony of the whole sentence. Schöne proposes (Hermes 9. 254) to read with the best MSS. cupido eadem quae ceteros fama,' etc., and to keep ‘reliquis ' instead of reliquorum.'

1. 4. C. 4. habendam. For agendam,' as in the common idiom, cf. 51. 12, Jug. 85. 41, but it is varied in the same sentence.

1. 6. servilibus officiis. This disparagement of agriculture is opposed to the spirit of old Roman life, which represented its heroes and statesmen as called from the plough, though the agricultural interest steadily declined under the Republic. The contempt implied for field sports is a more marked contrast to modern feeling. It is said that Scipio Aemilianus was distinguished from others of his day by his taste for them which he formed in the royal preserves of Macedonia. Pliny the Younger indeed speaks of hunting as a more fashionable pursuit, but he is careful to carry with him literary materials when he goes for a day's sport (5. 18).

1. 9. carptim, 'selecting here and there,' as distinguished from the continuous narrative of a Livy. So Pliny, Ep. 8. 4, 7, respondebis non posse perinde carptim ut contexta ... placere.' Sallust seems to affect the adverbs in -im, as “affatim,''certatim, 'catervatim,''turmatim,'which occur more frequently in older writers, especially in the fragments of Sisenna.

1. 10. a spe, metu, etc. Cf. the profession of Tacitus, that he can write (Ann. 1. 1,6) 'sine ira et studio quorum causas procul habeo.'

1. 12. absolvam, with case (Jug. 17. 2), but here used absolutely, as Tac. Hist. 4. 48, 1, 'ea de caede quam verissime expediam.'

1. 14. novitate. There had been already the riot caused by Saturninus when he called on the slaves to take up arms in his defence, and the movement of the Gracchi had been mercilessly crushed by force; but Rome had known little of the horrors of civil war and revolutionary plots, which had been so frequent in the states of Greece.

1. 16. c. 5. nobili genere. The full name was L. Sergius Catilina, and the Sergii were an old family, believed to be of Trojan origin; cf. Verg. Aen. 5. 121, 'Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen;'

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Juv. 8. 231, “Quid, Catilina, tuis natalibus atque Cethegi | inveniet quisquam sublimius.' The family of Catiline was distinguished from other branches of the Sergii by the epithet Silus (“naso susum versus repando,' Festus).

1. 16. magna vi.. corporis. Transferred by Aurelius Victor to his description of Mithridates (Vir. Ill. 79), as the 'ingenio malo pravoque' is borrowed by Sulpicius Severus (Hist. Sac. 2. 45), thus showing how familiar passages of Sallust clung to the memory of later writers.

1. 17. pravo. Cf. Hor. Sat. 2. 2, 55, ‘si te alio pravum detorseris.' His character was not merely bad by nature (malo) but had a vicious bias from habit.

1. 19. ibi for 'in quibus,' as 'unde' for 'a quo' (Jug. 14. 22), and “ubi' for 'apud quos' (Cat. 20. 8).

exercuit, as an agent in the proscription of Sulla, by the murder of several knights, and especially of Marius Gratidianus an eminent connexion of Marius and Cicero.

patiens inediae. Cf. the like description of Hannibal in Livy 21.4, 5, caloris ac frigoris patientia par vigiliarum somnique nec die nec nocte discriminata tempora.'

1. 21. simulator. A rare use of a substantive in an adjectival sense. Cf. Jug. 64. 1, "contemptor animus;' 12. 5, mulieris ancillae;' for the meaning, cf. Servius ad Verg. Aen. 1. 516, dissimulamus nota, simulamus ignota, ut Sallustius,' etc.

1. 22. alieni adpetens, s. p. Cf. two like contrasts of Tacitus, probably suggested by this: Germ. 31. 5, `prodigi alieni contemptores sui,' and of Galba, Hist. 1. 49, 5, 'pecuniae alienae non appetens, suae parcus.

1. 23. eloquentiae. We read in Aul. Gell. 1. 15, 18, that the grammarian Valerius Probus used to urge that Sallust wrote ‘loquentiae,' and made the correction in his own copy, ' quod loquentia novatori verborum Sallustio maxime congrueret, eloquentia cum insipientia minime conveniret.'

vastus. A bold use for ‘restless,' insatiable; ' cf. use of vastabat,' 15. 5.

1. 25. dominationem. The dictatorship of Sulla was practically an autocracy, and a tempting example for military adventurers. Cf. Vell. Paterc. 2. 28, 3, 'imperio quo priores ad vindicandam maximis periculis populi libertatem usi erant, eo immodicae crudelitatis licentia usus est.'

1. 27. quicquam pensi. Cf. Jug. 41. 9, 'nihil pensi neque sancti habere;' the phrase, often used by Plautus, recalls the times when value was only determined by weight of bronze; cf. note on 'aestumo,' 2. 8.

1. 28. inopia rei familiaris, straightened means.'

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