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1. 21. pedibus aeger. This, according to Dion Cassius 37. 39, was a mere pretence to cover his absence from the field. His old relations with Catiline made him unwilling, it was supposed, to deal the decisive blow himself.

1. 23. tumultus. Applied to the crisis of a Gallic inroad, or the confusion of some pressing danger.

1. 27. homo militaris. Cicero (pro Sestio, 5. 12) speaks of his ‘mirificus usus in re militari.' He had been already praetor: in 55 he was ‘legatus' to Pompeius in Spain, where he fought against Caesar in 49. Driven to disband his legions there, he tried to renew the struggle in Africa, where he killed himself after the battle of Thapsus (Caesar, B. C. 1. 83; Bell. Afr. 94).

1. 28. praefectus. A term specially applied to an officer of the allied contingent, which was divided into an 'ala dextra' and 'sinistra,' to each of which three 'praefecti socium' of Roman status, corresponding in rank to the tribune of the legion, were appointed by the commander-in-chief. The 'ala' had ten cohorts, each recruited by men of the same race, and with its own native 'praefectus cohortis.' The official titles of 'praefectus legionis' and 'praefectus castrorum belong to the time of the Empire.

1. 33. C. 60. ferentariis, óskirmishers.' Varro (L. L. 6. 3, 92) explains the word as applied to soldiers who had only 'arma quae ferrentur ut iaculum,' and says that he had seen in an old picture in the temple of Aesculapius horsemen so represented, with the name 'ferentarii' written below. Vegetius ranks them with the slingers (1. 20), and stations them on the wings.

P. 88, 1. 2. pila omittunt. So Caesar, Bell. Gall. 7. 88, 2, ‘nostri omissis pilis gladiis rem gerunt.'

1. 9. cohortem praetoriam. This was a corps d'élite specially organised as a body-guard of the general, and dating from the time when praetor rather than consul was the highest title, though ascribed by Festus (Epit. p. 223) to the initiative of Scipio Africanus. It consisted both of horse and foot, partly of veteran legionaries ('evocati'), partly of Roman equites, together with picked horsemen of the allies.

1. 16. c. 61. tum vero. Like the évtaūda on which Thucydides also puts after a participle, as 2. 58, 2.

1. 20. divorsius. Dietsch here inserts, without any MSS. authority, ·alis alibi stantes,' on the ground that two grammarians (Diomedes and Charisius) quote a passage of Sallust beginning thus and ending with sed omnes tamen adv. voln. cec.' It may have been a marginal note, for we find the phrase "alis (for 'alius ') alium,' in old inscriptions ; cf. C. I. L. 2. 2633.

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advorsis volneribus, 'wounds in face or front,' often appealed to in proof of a soldier's courage. Cf. Jug. 85. 29.

1. 26. iuxta. Cf. 37. 8.

1. 27. incruentam. First used, it would seem, by Sallust, afterwards common in Livy. The abruptness of the close is striking. Nothing is said as to the fortunes of the conspirators who had escaped from Rome, or as to any further consequences of the movement.

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THE JUGURTHINE WAR. P. 91, 1. 1. c. 1. falso. Quintilian criticises the opening sentence as having too metrical a sound : 'nec minore cura vitandum est quidquid est ērpuQ uov, quale apud Sallustium, falso queritur de natura sua. It is hard for a modern ear to detect the fault, and the grammarian Diomedes regards the criticism itself as captious.

1. 2. aevi brevis. Cf. Hor. Sat. 2. 6, 97, 'vive memor quam sis aevi brevis.' In 'aevum' the idea of duration or a long period is more prominent than in 'aetas,' and the phrase may imply, as Fabri suggests, that the life of man even at its longest is but a brief span.

regatur. The conj. is an exception to the common practice of Sallust, who puts an indic. after verbs expressing complaint, wonder, and the like; but probably the “falso' explains the variation of usage.

1. 3. invenias. There is an awkwardness in the two distinct constructions of the accusative and the infinitive following 'invenias.'

1. 6. grassatur. As the frequentative of 'gradior’ this verb implies a continued or intenser form of action.

1.7. pollens potensque. These words are often combined, as in the ancient formula of the fetials, Liv. 1. 24, 9, 'quanto magis potes pollesque.' The former word expresses strength and resources, the latter the ability to use them.

1. 8. artis. Cf. note on Cat. 2. 4.

1. 10. pessum. For 'ped-tum,' and connected with médov, mediov, * oppidum,' in sense of 'firm-footing,' 'solid ground;' “pessum ire' in form like 'venum ire, domum abire,' the accus, indicating that to which the movement tends. Cf. Corssen, Beiträge, p. 333.

1. 11. usus. It seems easier to connect this immediately with datus est,' making the second clause explanatory of the first, than to explain it as a nom. abs. or anacoluthon, as though the meaning and natural construction would be 'lubidine usus ... infirmitatem accusat.'

1. 13. auctores, i.e. óculpae,' the culprits.

1. 16. eo magnitudinis. A favourite construction of Sallust, not found in Cicero or Caesar, but common in Tacitus and later writers.

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1. 17. pro mortalibus. Not as far as mortal man may be,' like the 'pro loco atque copiis' of Cat. 59. 1, but instead of being mortal.' Cf. Livy, 22. 12, 6, pro cunctatore segnem, pro cauto timidum compellabat.'

1. 18. c. 2. genus hominum, “human nature;' but the 'genus humanum' of some MSS. would be, as Kritz remarks, men as the contents of the class.

anima. Used here, as in Cat. 2. 8, in contrast to 'corpus,' instead of the more distinctive animus;' Cic. Tusc. 3. I, I, 'cum constemus ex animo et corpore. Varro, however, agrees with Sallust, 'quod est, homo ex corpore et anima,' L. L. 8. 1.

1. 22. dilabuntur. This commonplace is repeated from Cat. 1. 4. P. 92, 1. 1. aucta senescunt, 'all that wax begin in turn to wane.' 1. 2. inconruptus, 'incorruptible.' Cf. note on “invictum,' 43. 5.

1. 8. claritudo. An older form preferred by Sallust to claritas,' like 'necessitudo,' Cat. 17. 2.

1. 9. c. 3. imperia. Used here for military office as distinct from the civil ‘magistratus,' though the word originally implied the power of life and death vested in judicial as well as military authority.

1. 12. per fraudem [iis] fuit. If in this corrupt passage 'iis' be simply struck out, 'fuit' must be taken as equivalent to 'licuit,' as 110. 3, ‘fuerit mihi eguisse aliquando tuae amicitiae.' The change to ‘is' is easy, and it would then agree with 'honos,' but the usage of Sallust seems to require the order . quibus is per fraudem fuit.' A good MS. has 'ius,' which may be taken in the sense of official authority. Dietsch and others propose 'vel vi,' Steup suggests 'decus.' A further corruption in the MSS. consists in the insertion of 'uti 'before the 'tuti, which slipped in doubtless by a copyist's mistake.

nam vi quidem regere patriam. The whole paragraph closely resembles the drift of a long passage in one of the Epistles attributed to Plato (7), and addressed to the relations of Dion.

1. 13. parentes. The corresponding passage in the Greek letter has πατέρα η μητέρα προσβιάζεσθαι, yet forcible restraint in their case would seem to need a stronger epithet than inportunum. If we translate it as “subjects,' as in 102. 7, we are met by the objection that force in ruling alien peoples seemed natural to Roman minds. But here, as in Cat. 6. 5 and 52. 3, where the word is coupled with 'patria,' we may best translate it as 'kinsfolk' or relations in a wider sense, like the French parents. It has been proposed to change “aut' to 'ut,' and to translate “as subjects,' and this would be convenient, though not necessary.

1. 14. inportunum, 'dangerous,' like a rocky coast without a harbour of refuge. The danger of course is to the holder of power.

l. 17. quaerere, 'acquire.'

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nisi forte. After speaking of the difficulties and dangers of power sought by fair means (“ virtuti ') or foul (per fraudem '), and used in the interests of the popular party ('omnes rerum mutationes '), Sallust contemptuously refers to the partisans of the old oligarchy who would yield honour and freedom to win the favour of the privileged few. The words nisi forte' often have an ironical meaning. Cf. 31. 20.

1. 20. c. 4. ceterum. Commonly used in this treatise in transitions from one thought to another, though at times with idea of marked contrast as 14. I.

1. 21, memoria, 'record,' and therefore with 'rerum gestarum,' "history.'

1. 22. per insolentiam. Taken out of its natural place near the verb which it qualifies, that no one may think me to be in a vainglorious spirit overpraising my own pursuit ;' imitated perhaps by Tac. Ann. 14. 43, I, 'ne nimio amore antiqui moris studium meum extollere viderer.'

1. 27. salutare plebem. Cf. Livy, 23. 4, 2, 'hinc senatores ... plebem adulari, salutare, benigne invitare, apparatis accipere epulis.' Hor. Ep. 1. 19, 37, ‘non ego ventosae plebis suffragia venor | impensis coenarum.'

1. 28. adeptus sim. Good MSS. have .sum,' and the indic. is possible in a sentence which refers to a matter of fact, while the following conjunct. indicates a less definite object of thought.

1. 29. quales viri. Sallust may be thinking, among other cases, of the unsuccessful attempt of M. Cato to gain the praetorship in 55 B.C.

quae genera hominum. Referring to the Gauls and others admitted by Julius Caesar to the senate, and to those whom M. Antonius enrolled at the supposed wish of Caesar. The latter were called by popular jest 'Orcini' (Sueton. Aug. 35), and pasquinades on the former suggested that no one should show the new senators the way to the senate-house, and again ‘Gallos Caesar in triumphum ducit, idem in curiam' (Sueton. Jul. 80).

1. 31. merito, 'with good reason.'

1. 32. negotiis. Contrasted with 'otio’ by a play upon the derivation 'nec-otium.'

1. 33. Q. Maxumum. The Fabius Cunctator who checked the course of Hannibal's successes.

P. 93, 1. 1. P. Scipionem. Either the conqueror of Hannibal, or the victor of Numantia and Carthage.

1. 2. maiorum imagines. The busts which were set up in the atrium of a nobleman's house. Cp. Juv. 8. I, 'quid prodest, Pontice, longo | sanguine censeri, pictosque ostendere vultus / maiorum et stantes in curribus Aemilianos et Curios iam dimidios.'

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1. 3. scilicet. Used as here with an infin. 102. 9; 113. 3, the verbal sense of the word being prominent. To make ‘habere,' with Kritz, follow the same regimen as “accendi' would leave 'egregiis viris' without any natural construction.

1. 7. omnium eis moribus, 'in the general corruption of our age.' Cf. Dräger, 2. 776, who compares Cic. Att. 10. II, 3, ' ea sunt tolerabilia—hac iuventute,' and 11. 14, 2, 'omnium conspectum horreo, praesertim hoc genere.' 1. II. furtim. The change from the adverb to the accus. with ".

'per, and the instrum. abl. is one of the modes by which Sallust gives variety to his style. 1. 15. altius, .further into the

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sea.' 1. 16. ad inceptum redeo. Cf. 42. 5. Tacitus probably imitates this in Ann. 4. 33, 6.

1. 18. c.5. magnum. Not in the number of the combatants or worldwide importance of the struggle, but in the novel character of the campaigns and the physical difficulties of the seat of war.

1. 19. tunc primum. This was not literally true, as the action of the Gracchi showed in legislation, for they ignored completely the influence of the senate, and appealed directly to the commons. The Memmius and Mamilius of this period did no more than many a bold tribune of the past in impeaching great offenders.

1. 22. vastitas Italiae. The population of Italy was steadily on the decline during the last century of the Republic. Tib. Gracchus called attention to the épnuía tñs xwpas (Plut. T. Gr. 8), and tried not quite in vain to check it. The ravages of war indeed were great and frequently renewed. The Social War is said to have cost 300,000 fighting men (Vell. Paterc. 2. 15, 2). Towns were destroyed and whole districts left a wilderness before Sulla crushed his rivals, and the later Civil Wars cost countless lives. But the losses of war might soon have been repaired, if economic causes had not ruined the Italian yeomen, and replaced them with slave-gangs working on the vast estates of absentees. The early empire tried ineffectually to remedy the evil, and the depopulation steadily went on.

faceret. A sing. verb is often used by Sallust after several subjects which together form one compound thought. Cf. 75. I ; Cat. 12. I; 50. 6.

1. 27. post magnitudinem nominis Romani, since the Roman power had grown to its full stature. For a like use of `post,' cf. Cat. 5. 6, ‘post dominationem L. Sullae;' Lucil. Sat. 4, 'optimus ille. | post homines natos gladiator qui fuit unus.' ‘Nomen Romanum’ is formed after the analogy of ‘nomen Latinum,' which was used as a collective term first for the Latin race, and then for a degree of political status.

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