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1.-1. Omnes. Many editions have omnis, an old form of the Acc. pl. of certain words. § 12, Obs. 1. Arrange, Decet omnes homines, qui,

niti summa ope, "to strive with all their might:" luti pecora, scil., vitam transeunt, “just as cattle do.” See An. Gr. 355:

- prona, “ bending down,” in opposition to the erect gait of manos sublimemerectos ad sidera vultus ; Ovid Met. I., 85, 86. 2. Animi imperio .... magis utimur, lit., “We use more the empire (governing power) of the mind, the servitude of the body.” Imperio and servitio are both governed by utimur; and animi and corporis governed by them respectively, are in the genitive subjective. § 106, Obs. 1. The meaning is, “In ruling, directing, managing,” &c., we use the mind more than the body; in labor or carrying into effect, we use the body “more than the mind :" alterum-alterum, “the one,” scil., the empire of the mind, “the other,” scil., the servitude of the body: dis, contracted for diis. § 10, Exc. 5. 2d. 3. Quo mihi rectius videtur, “Wherefore (i. e., on this account) it appears to me better:” memoriam nostri, “the memory (or remembrance) of ourselves.” Memoriam nostram, would mean our faculty of memory,” but this distinction is not always observed : quam maxime longam, an unusual periphrasis for quam longissimam, "as lasting as possible.” 4. Fluxa, “Fleeting,” “transitory,”- is applied to gloria divitiarum; fragilis, “frail,” “perishable,” "easily destroyed,” more properly to gloria formo : certamen, “a controversy:" vine corporis

utrum vi corporis an, an indirect question. $ 140, 5. Note: res militaris magis procederet, "a military enterprise prospered more.'

5. Consulto, “Of consultation :" mature facto, “of acting speedily.”-Verbal nouns governed by opus. $ 118, R. xxii. :

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Utrumque, &c., “Each of the two (viz., animus and corpus), defective by itself, needs aid, the one from the other.”

11.-1. In terris, “In all countries,”—“in the world :"

· parsalii (same as aliimalii), “sume—others,” $ 98, Obs. 12, distributing reges diversi, $ 97, Obs. 5: exercebant, “cultivated.” 2. Postea vero quam - postquam vero, “But after that:"

Cyrus, scil., Cyrus the elder, king of Persia : habere, “to esteem,” “to regard :" after libidinem dominandi, supply esse; and after gloriam, supply esse or sitam esse :

periculo atque negotiis, “in danger and in difficulties.” 3. Quod si, “If however:” animi virtus, “ vigor of mind;" “mental power:” sese haberent, lit., “would have themselves," i. e., “would be;"-similar to the Greek el éxel, scil., éautóv, “he is well,” lit., “he has himself well.”

4. Neque cerneres aliud alio ferri, "Nor would you see one thing carried in one direction, and another in another.” $ 98, Obs. 12. For this use of the verb in the second person singular, so common in Sallust, see § 48, Note 1: misceri, “thrown into confusion.” 5. Ad optimum quemque a minus bono, “From the less worthy to the most deserving,” lit., “to every one in proportion as he is better than others.” Such is the force of quisque with the superlative. 6. Quæ homines arant, &c., lit., “Whatever men plough,” i. e., “do in ploughing or agriculture,” mode of expression very unusual: virtuti omnia parent, "all things depend on good conduct.” %. Sicuti peregrinantes, “Like foreign travellers,” scil., taking but little interest in any thing: juxta, “alike,” “equally inglorious :" quoniam de utraque siletur, “since no mention is made of either.8. Verum enimvero, “But truly:"

præclari facinoris aut artis bonce, “ of some illustrious deed, or honorable profession.” 9. Rerum, “Of occupations :" aliud alii iter, “one course to one, and another course to another." See above Note 4, with reference.

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III.-1. Bene facere, &c., subject of est. § 144, R. lvi. : pulchrum. $ 98, Obs. 6: rei publicæ. $ 112, R. xvii. : haud absurdum est, “is by no means inglorious," i. e., “is highly commendable,”—“is well worthy of a man.” Haud is a negative strongly intensive: clarum fieri licet, i. e., homini licet se clarum fieri. $ 103, Obs. 7. 2. Mihi quidem, To me at least:” res gestas scribere (subject of videtur), “to write a history:” dehinc (here corresponding to primum above), “in the next place.” Seldom used in this



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sense deinde is the common term. 3. Quia plerique quo delicta reprehenderis, &c., “Because many persons think that those things which you inay have censured as faults, have been censured (dicta, lit., “uttered," "spoken ”) from malevolence and envy." See above Ch. II., 4, second ref. 4. Supra ea, supply thus, quce putat esse supra ea, “What he considers to be beyond these.” 5. Studio . latus sum, “By inclination was led to engage in) public affairs,”—“to apply for office :" ibique, “and in that course.' 6. Insolens malarum artium, “Unaccustomed to,—unacquainted with—wicked schemes," $ 107, R. ix:

ambitione corrupta tenebatur, was corrupted and held fast by ambition,” lit., “being corrupted by ambition was held fast.” This he gives as the reason why he did not at once abandon such a course. 7. Ac me . . . . vexabat, Yet the pursuit of honor (i. e., of office) harassed me with the same abuse (ill-fame) and odium, with which it harassed others,” i. e., “subjected me to the same abuse and odium to which it subjected others.” The reading which makes eadem, qua, fama, and invidia, in the nominative, instead of the ablative as here, is spiritless and inferior to the text here adopted.

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IV.-1. Mihi reliquam ætatem, “That the rest of my life.” For the dative mihi here, and mihi animus below, see $ 110, Obs. 1 and 2: bonum otium conterere, “to waste my valuable leisure.” 2. Ser. vilibus officiis, Abl. in apposition with agrum colendo, and venando, “Servile employments.” This must be understood relatively; for the occupations of agriculture and the chase were by many among the Romans regarded as highly honorable. But Sallust here calls them "servile” in comparison with the task he had laid out for himself, to write the history of the Roman people, and requiring more the servitium corporis, than the imperium animi, Ch. I., 2. 3. Sed a quo incepto, &c., “But having returned to the same undertaking and studies from which, &c.” Eodem, adv., is here equivalent to eidem incepto, studioque, and hence these words, in translating, are to be omitted after the relative. $ 99, Obs. 1. 2d: carptim, “in detached parts." 4. De.... paucis absolvam,” I will relate in a few worde [briefly] (the particulars) concerning:” id facinus, "that daring transaction.” 5. Cujus hominis, “Of this man.” § 99, Obs. 8.


1.-1. Lucius Catilina. To the history of this conspiracy, Sallust here prefixes a general description of the principal actor. Lucius Sergius Catiline was a patrician of the gens Sergia, a family of great

antiquity, to which belonged some names distinguished in Roman history. He was born B. c. 109, and was of course three years the senior of Cicero, who was born B. c. 106. 2. Vi-ingenio. $ 106, R. vii. : ibique, “and in these.” 3. Patiens inediæ, “Capable of enduring hunger.” § 107, R. ix. Patiens inediam means, "actually enduring hunger.” 4. Cujus rei libet, by tmesis for cujuslibet rei, “Of any thing he pleased :" simulator means one who pretends to be what he is not ;-dissimulator means one who conceals what he really is: satis eloquentiæ, scil., fuit illi, “he possessed eloquence enough.” § 112, R. ii., and $ 135, R. xlvi. 5. Vastus animus, “His insatiable spirit.” 6. Post dominationem Lucii Sulle, “Ever since the despotic rule of Lucius Sulla.” Lucius Sulla was a Roman of patrician rank, a brave soldier, an able general, but a monster of cruelty. He served first in the Jugurthine war under Marius, who became jealous of his merits. This originated a quarrel between them which afterwards produced the most disastrous results, and involved Italy in a destructive civil war. Having put an end to the first Mithridatic war, and burning with desire to be revenged on Marius and his adherents, who had cruelly butchered vast numbers of his friends in Rome, Sulla entered Italy, defeated the Mariap party in several battles, and led his army to Rome, of which he soon made himself master. But dreadful as had been the massacres of Marius and Cinna, the manner in which Sulla, though moderate at first, made use of his victory in the end, filled Italy with horrors even more appalling than any they had yet witnessed.

At Rome especially, where he seemed to act as a perfect tyrant, there was no limit to his cruelty. About 8,000 Samnite captives were murdered in the Circus; 46 consulars, prætorians, and ædiles—and 200 senators were slain ; 1,600 equites were proscribed and destroyed, and 150,000 citizens perished. In these scenes of cruelty and bloodshed, Catiline acted a conspicuous part, and was thus trained for the crimes he afterwards committed. After glutting his vengeance with the blood of thousands, Sulla was appointed dictator; and though in this situation he reformed some abuses, restored the ancient laws, and enacted some new ones that were salutary and beneficial, yet tyranny marked his whole course, and rendered his administration a scene of terror by his personal enmities and insufferable despotism. To the surprise of all, after three years he resigned the dictatorship, retired to Puteoli, and ended a miserable privacy by a miserable death, B. C. 78, in the sixtieth year of his age. See Jug. Ch. XCV. 7. In dies, “Day by

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