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peculiar construction frequently used by Cicero quæ audivissent

ut dicebant. § 141, Obs. 7, Note: animi nobilitate," by a noble impulse.”

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L.–1. Liberti, “The freedmen,” so called in relation to the manumitter, but libertini in relation to all others. Liberti Lentuli, thon, means persons made free by Lentulus, and of course devoted to him in gratitude for their liberty: Pauci ex clientibus. $ 107, Obs. 8. See Ch. XXVI., 5: · With sollicitabant supply partim, corresponding to partim in the next clause: duces multitudinum, “leaders of mobs." 2. Hamiliam, “His family,” i. e., “his slaves." 3. Refert, “Refers it to them," • brings forward the question for their decision,” scil., quid de his, dc. 4. Judicaverat, “Had found,” “had decided :"

cunira rem publicam fecisse, “that they had acted as enemies to the state.” 5. Sententiam rogatus. $ 126, R. iv:

consul designatus, “crusul elect." Ch. XVIII., 3 : supplicium sumendum decreverat, “had given his opinion that capital punishment should be inflicted on those,” &c. 6. Pedibus in sententiam, &c., “That he world go into the opinion (vote for the proposal) of Tib. Nero.” The allusion in the expression is to the manner of voting per discessionem—by separation, or division of the house; those in favor of the opinion of one person went with him to a particular part of the house, and those in favor of the opinion of another, went with him to another part, as the presiding misicer directed. The order of things here stated seems to have been this: Silanus, consul elect, at first was for capital punishment: Tiberius Nero (the grandfather of Tiberius who was made emperor A. D. 14) opposed capital punishment, at least for the present, recommended that they should be held in custody, the guards strengthened, and when the conspiracy should be put down, they would then resume and decide the question. Cæsar was opposed to capital punishment altogether, and advised imprisonment for life. His speech (see next chapter) was ingerious able, and plausible; and gained over many of the senators, among rest Silanus, who changed his views, and gave notice he would supped the opinion of Tib. Nero. Cicero then rose and delivered what is not his fourth Catilinarian oration, in which he urged prompt and vigorou: action, without stating definitely what that action should be, but evidently favoring the severest measures. He failed to withdraw the majority, however, from the opinion of Cæsar, till Lutatius Catulus, the inveterate enemy of Cæsar, and especially Cato, then tribune elect

of the commons, by powerful efforts turned the scale. For the speech of Cato see Ch. LII., and its results, Ch. LIII. 7. Hujuscemodi verba locutus est, “Spoke to this effect.” The word hujuscemodi intimates that the speech of Cæsar which follows is not to be considered as given in his very words, but only as to the general sense of it as near as could be remembered.

LI.-1. Patres Conscripti—a title by which the senators assembled were addressed, supposed to have been originally Patres et Conscripti. By Patres is meant members of the senate as originally constituted by Romulus, and by Conscripti; those afterwards added by Brutus. 2. Neque quisquam omnium, &c., “And of all men, no one has ever been subservient to his passions, and his interest at the same time.” The term libido, in its general sense, means desire, feeling, inclinution ; and to act ex libidine is to act under the influence of feeling or passion, such as anger, fear, pity, or the like, as opposed to acting from sound judgment and discretion, or a sense of duty or propriety. 3. Ubi intenderis ingenium, scil., in verum. 4. Male consuluerint, “Have formed bad resolutions." 5. Ne quis divitiarum, &c., “That no one might say the war was undertaken more on account of their riches, than of any injury (done to us).”' 6. Per inducias, “During the time of a truce:". per occasionem, “when opportunity offered :"

talia fecere, “retaliated,” lit., “did such things,” scil., to them, as they did to us. 17. Neu consulatis, “And that you do not consult." 8. Digna pro factis. $ 119, Explanation: consilium, “the new measures.” Cæsar here represents it as something new to punish with death for political offences, as Silanus proposed. But this was not precisely so; for Cicero represents Silanus as reminding the senate hoc genus pance sæpe in improbos cives esse usurpatum (IV.Or. in Cat., Ch. IV): - utendum his, scil., imprisonment and exile.

9. Pati, quce (i. e., ea quæ), “Suffered such indignities as.” § 31, Obs. 2, last part. 10. An (eo pertinuit) uti vos, &c., “Was this its object, to make you hostile to the conspiracy ?" -Scilicet, Yes, forsooth.” This word is here strongly ironical: eas gravius equo habuere, “have felt them too severely,” lit., “have regarded them more seriously than was right.”. 11. Alia aliis licentia est, “ All have not the same freedom;" lit., “one degree of freedom is to some persons, and another to others.” $ 98, Obs. 11 : demissi, “in humble station;" iracundia, ablative of cause: studere, “to favor;"

paulo severior. $ 134, Obs. 6, 2d. 12. Studio rei publico,





“From zeal for the republic:" inimicitias, enmity;" seldom used in the singular: eos (esse) mores,

" that such are the man ners." 13. Aliena a re publica nostra, “ Foreign (not adapted) to our government.” 14. Id quod res habet, lit., “That which the thing has," i. e., “that which is certain ;” viz., &c.:

a rest from sorrows :" ultra (scil., mortem), “beyond this.” Cæsar here expresses the opinion of not a few among the ancients, “that death is the end of our existence.” 15. An quia lex Porcia vetat ? The Porcian law passed B. C. 299, ordained that no one should bind, scourge, or kill a Roman citizen; but that, in capital cases, the alternative of exile should be granted: tanti facinoris convictos. § 126, R. i. 16. Qui convenit, &c. ? “How is it consistent that

you should regard the law in a less matter ?” scil., punishing with stripes.

17. At enim. This expression shows an ellipsis of an objection introduced by at, the reason of which is introduced by enim ; thus, “But,” some one will say, What need of this discussion, “for who,” &c. ?-Or more briefly, “But after all, who, &c. ? (I answer) a time, a day, fortune will reprove us,” i. e., some future time, some critical occasion will arrive, when advantage will be taken of this as a precedent to pursue a course which may then prove dangerous, and so reprove the course you now adopt. 18. Quid in alios statuatis, “What you determine against others;" i. e., the decision you now make against these conspirators—just in their case—may be a decision against others, and as a precedent be made use of to sanction great abuses, and great injustice: ex bonis, scil., exemplis : ab dignis (scil., poena) et idoneis, “from proper and fit subjects of punishment, to others not deserving punishment, and not fit” to be treated in this way. 19. Triginta viros, “Thirty men,” who turned out very soon to be thirty tyrants, B. C. 404: ea populus lætari, “at these things the people rejoiced.” § 116, Obs. 3, and g 101, Obs. 6. 20. Damasippum. This was a prætor of the Marian party in the consulship of Papirius Carbo, B. C. 82, who indulged in many cruel excesses against the followers of Sulla:

proscriptorum, “ of those proscribed,” viz, by Sulla. See Ch. V., 5. 21. Trahebantur, scil., ad mortem : 22. Atque ego non vereor, “I certainly do not fear.” Atque is frequently used as here in an intensive sense. — 23. Potest alio tempore, &c. Arrange, Alio tempore, &c.aliquid falsum potest credi pro vero: hoc exemplo, “under this precedent.” 24. Quo minus imitarentur, “From imitating.” § 45, II., 3. 25. Sumpserunt, “They borrowed :" imitari quam invidere bonis, “to imitate rather

than to envy the good.” Bonis (scil., hominibus,—others prefer institutis), in the dative, depends for its case on the verb nearest it: imitari would require the accusative. It is common, in such constructions, to repeat the word after each verb, in the case which the verb requires.

26. Imitati, “Imitating.” $ 49, 5, Note 1 : de condemnatis, &c. In the expression sumere supplicium de, the punishment inflicted is regarded as a satisfaction or atonement taken or received from the offender. 27. Quibus legibus. $ 99, Obs. 1, 3d. 28. Hanc ego causam, &c., “I think this a very special reason why we should not adopt new measures.” 29. Sed ita censeo, “But my opinion is this :"

neu quis, "and that no one.”

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LII.-1. Ceteri, &c., “The rest”.(scil., of the senators) assented verbally, one senator to one speaker, and another to another, “variously.” This was done by saying 'assentior,' scil., Silano, Neroni, Cæsari, &c., as the case might be. Sallust takes no notice here of the speeches of Catulus and Cicero: - 2. M. Porcius Cato, was the great-grandson of Cato the Censor. He was a man of stern integrity, a brave soldier, and an able general. Through his firm support, chiefly, Cicero was enabled, in opposition to Cæsar and others, to bring the accomplices of Catiline to capital punishment. After the defeat of Juba and Scipio by Cæsar in the battle of Thapsus, he put an end to his life at Utica. Hence he was called Cato Uticensis. 3. Longe mihi alia mens est, “I have a very different opinion :" focis, lit., “their altars and their hearths,” i. e., “their religion and their homes." 4. Cetera maleficia, “As to other crimes”-hoc, " as to this:" maleficia is properly the object of persequare, and hoc, the subject of accidat : judicia, “the aid of the) tribunals :" nihil reliqui fit, “nothing is left.” § 106, Obs. 8. 5. Pluris fecistis, “ Have made of greater account,” “have valued more.' $ 122, R. xxviii.: ista, referring to domos, villas, &c. $ 99, Obs. 3: see also Ch. XL., 4, with ref. It carries with it here an expression of contempt. § 28, Obs. 3, 3d, ad fin. 6. Non agitur, "The question is not:”

multa verba in hoc ordine feci, “I have spoken much in this senate;" facere verba means “to speak,” “to make a speech :"

adversos (mihi), “ opposed to me:” qui mihi, &c., (qui has for its antecedent ego understood, the subject of condonabam,) “I who had forgiven no fault at any time to myself, and to my own inclination, certainly did not readily pardon crimes to gratify the lust of another.” The imperfect sometimes expresses what was usual or cus

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tomary. $ 44, II., 1. 17. Opulentia negligentiam tolerabat, Its wealth brooked your remissness,” i. e., such were the resources of the state, that the negligence of individuals did not materially affect it. 8. Nunc vero non id agitur, “That is not now the question :" vivamus, sit, futura sint. $ 140, 5: sed (num) hæo, &c., “but whether these things, of whatever sort they appear to be, are to belong to us, or, together with ourselves, to be the prey of our enemies." 9. Hic mihi, &c., “And here some one speaks to me of clemency and mercy !" alluding to the speech of Cæsar : equidem, here as below for quidem, a usage quite common in Sallust. Equidem ( =

= ego quidem) is used properly only when the verb is in the first person singular; quidem is used in all other cases : liberalitas, fortitudo. § 103, R. v.:eo ... in extremo (loco), “in such an extremity,” lit., “to such a degree is the state placed in extremity.”

10. Sint sane, “Let them be indeed.” § 42, Obs. 4 and 5:

.... habent. See Ch. II., 3 : perditum eant, “ hasten to destroy.” ģ 148, 1. Ne, in the beginning of the sentence, negatives eant, as well as largiantur, and et connects them thus negatived. Instead of et, neu might have been used. 11. Credo, “I suppose,” is parenthetic, and does not affect the construction of the other words in the sentence: de in feris, “concerning the dead," namely, diverso itinere malos, &c., “that the wicked, their route being different from that of the good, inhabit places dismal,” &c. Ch. LI., 14. 12. Popularibus conjurationis, “By their associates in the conspiracy.”. 13. Solus non timet, &c., “He (Cæsar) alone has no fear, it is the more necessary that I should be concerned for myself and for you." There seems here to be an insinuation that if Cæsar was without apprehension, it might arise from his not being averse to the conspiracy. 14. Quanto .... tanto, &c., “The more vigorously you act in the present case, the less will their courage be.” § 132, R. xliii., and Obs. 6: armis (scil., tantum), “by arms alone.”

15. Quce nulla, “ None of which :" animus in consulendo, &c., “a mind unfettered in deliberation, awed neither by a sense of guilt, nor by passion.”. 16. Omnia virtutis præmia, “All the rewards of merit,” scil., civil and military offices.

17. Ubi vos separatim, &c., “When you separately take mea sures, each one for himself, when at home you are slaves to pleasure, here in the senate), to money or favor :" vacuam, scil., defensoribus, “unprotected,” “defenceless.” 18. Patriam incendere, “To fire the city :"

supra caput est,“ is close at hand :" cunctamini etiamnunc, &c. ? " do ye even now hesitate what you should do to

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