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enemies ?" &c. $ 112, R. xvii., and Expl. : faciatis. $ 140, 5. 19. Miscreamini, censeo, “I suppose you should pity them,” spoken ironically, as well as what follows. 20. Na ista vobis, &c. Arrange, ista mansuetudo et misericordia, si illi ceperint arma, convertet (intr.) in miseriam vobis. $ 110, R. xv. Expl. 21. Scilicet res ipsa aspera est, &c., “The crisis indeed is dangerous, but (you profess) you do not fear it :" immo vero maxime, scil., eam timetis, nay, indeed, you fear it very much :” alius alium exspectantes, waiting one for another.” 22. Non votis, &c., (sed) vigilando, &c. : implores, i. e., erit ut implores. § 42, Obs. 5. 23. Bello Gallico. Sallust is evidently in error here. The fact here mentioned took place not in the Gallic, but in the Latin war, B. C. 340: morte

“made atonement (for his rashness) by his death.” 24. Videlicet cetera vita, &c., “No doubt the rest of their lives stands opposed to this wickedness.” This, with what follows, is spoken ironically, and with reference probably to something said in extenuation of their crime by other speakers : iterum, a second time." What the first time, implied in this expression, was, is uncertain : probably, though not mentioned, he was concerned in the intended insurrection mentioned Ch. XVIII. 25. Quibus si quidquam, &c., “If they had ever had the least reflection :" si peccato locus esset, “if there were room for the blunder;" faucibus urguet, lit., “presses at our throats.” 26. De confessis. ... supplicium sumendum. See above, Ch. LI., 26 : manifestis, “ clearly guilty.”

panas dedit,

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LIII.-1. Sicuti ille censuerat, “ As he had advised," "in accordance with his opinion.” 2. Sed mihi multa legenti, &c. This dative (mihi) depends on libuit. In translating, connect præclara facinora with multa, and omit after quce ($ 99, Obs. 1, 2d); thus, Sed mihi legenti multa, audienti multa præclara facinora, quæ, &c., and render, “But I, by reading ($ 146, Obs. 6 last part) many, and hearing of many illustrious achievements, which, &c.,

,—was accidentally led to consider what had chiefly sustained such great undertakings.” The conclusion to which he thus came was, that Rome had risen to its greatness by the surpassing merit of some individual citizens. See below, mihi nulta agitanti. 3. Contendisse, i. e., illos, sc. Romanos contendisse :

aạitanti, “reflecting on.” 4. Sicuti effeta parentum effeta parens. § 107, R. x. Expl., “ As a mother past bearing.” This sentence as it stands in the text is an instance of anacoluthon—a sentence beginning with one construction, and ending with

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another. $ 150, 3, 5th. The sentence carried out as it begins would stand thus : Ac sicuti effeta parentum, multis tempestatibus, haud sane quemquam Roma virtute magnum protulit. Arrange thus, Ac Roma, sicuti effeta parentum, &c. Some editions have effeto parentum, and some effeta parente : multis tempestatibus, for å long period.”

5. Quin (= ut non).... aperirem, “ Without portraying ;" compare $ 140, 3 with $ 45, II., 3.

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LIV.-1. Genus. Cæsar was of a patrician, and Cato, of a plebeian family; but the illustrious achievements.of the latter raised it to an equality with the former : cetas. Cato was 33, and Cæsar 37, at the time of this conspiracy : item gloria (par), sed alia alii, “their glory likewise was equal, but in each, of a different character;" lit., “but one kind of glory was to the one, and another to the other.” $ 98, Obs. 11. 2. In alteroin altero, “In the one (Cæsar)-in the other (Cato).” Alius properly means one of many,”alter,

one of two." This distinction is not always observed, and sometimes, as here, both are used : illius facilitas," the yielding temper of the former :" hujus .constantia, “the firmness of the latter.” 3. Negligere, denegare ; historical infinitives mixed with the imperfect indicative : exoptabat, was always wishing.” § 44,

4. Severitatis, “Of strictness,” " of rigid virtue.” 5. Factione, “In party spirit :" abstinentia, “in sobriety:" quo minus, “the less,”- '-eo magis, “the more.' $ 132, R. xliii.—The parallel drawn between Cato and Cæsar, in this chapter, is considered one of the finest passages in this history.

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II., 1.

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LV.-1. In Catonis sententiam discessit. See Ch. L., 6: triumviros—sometimes written tresviros or treviros, and in manuscripts IIIviros—“the triumviri,” scil., the triumviri capitales, inferior magistrates, who had the charge of the public prison, executions, &c., and judged concerning slaves and persons of the lowest rank. 2. Quod Tullianum appellatur, Which is called Tullianum." The relative here takes the gender of the word following in the relative clause, instead of locus in the antecedent clause. $ 99, Obs. 4. The Tullianum—so called from Servius Tullius by whom it was built-was a dungeon or subterraneous apartment cut into the rock, and covered over with a roof. The prison was first built by Ancus Marcius, and afterwards enlarged by the addition of this dungeon by Servius Tullius. It was near the Forum, and is now a church called San Pietro in car

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descenderis. See Ch. II., 4, with ref. 3. Camera lapideis fornicibus vincta, “A vaulted roof secured by stone arches :" incultu, “from neglect,” hence “filth.” 4. Vindices rerum capitalium, lit., “The punishers of capital offences,” i. e., “the executioners,” scil., the triumviri capitales. 5. De Cethego.... supplicium sumptum est, “Punishment was inflicted on Cethegus,” &c. See Ch. LI., 26. This summary proceeding on the part of Cicero, putting these men to death, on the sentence of the senate, without bringing the matter before the people, was seized upon by his enemies, and used to sustain the charge against him of putting Roman citizens to death contrary to law, and without a trial, the consequence of which was,

he was forced to go into exile B. C. 48.

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liter,

LVI.-1. Ex omni copia (scil., hominum), “Out of the entire force:”

cohortes pro numero, &c., "he fills up the cohorts according to the number of men (he had with him).” The number of men in a Roman legion was different at different times, ranging from 3000 to 6000 men. But whatever was the number, each legion was divided into ten cohorts, each cohort into three maniples, and each maniple into three centuries; and when each century consisted of 100 men, as the name imports, the legion consisted of 6000. This however was seldom the case, and as Catiline's whole force now consisted of only about two thousand men, the legions formed would contain each only about one thousand, and the cohorts about one hundred : æqua

equally," i. e., between the two legions : legiones numero hominum expleverat, “he had filled up the legions with the (usual) complement of men.” 2. Instructa erat, Had been supplied :"

sparos, i. e. alii sparos, &c., "some, darts or lances—others, sharp pointed stakes ;" here aliialii distribute ceteri. 3. Antonius, the colleague of Cicero in the consulship: modo ad urbem, modo in Galliam versus, “turning sometimes towards the city,” &c. 4. Servitiacujus, scil., generis hominum, “The slaves, of which class,” &c. $ 99, Exc. 1. 5. Alienum suis rationibus existimans (se, $ 145, Obs. 3,) videri, &c., “Thinking it inconsistent with his plans, to seem to have shared the cause of freemen with fugitive slaves." Alienum in the predicate belongs to the clause videri causam, &c., as 8, subject. $ 98, Obs. 6.

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LVII.—1. Nuntius pervenit, “The news came,”

nuntiatum est: in agrum Pistoriensem, “into the territory of Pistoria,”-in

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the northern part of Etruria. 2. Præsidebat, “Was posted” præsidio erat : illa eadem, “those same things,” viz., an escape into Gaul, probably into the country of the Allobroges.

3. Utpote qui, &c.,

“Inasmuch as he, unimpeded in a more level country, followed him in his flight.” Some editions have expeditos in fuga, incumbered in flight,”-applied to the followers of Catiline, who in their haste had thrown away their baggage. But as this would be a

reason for Antonius being at a great distance, rather than near at hand, • the common reading, expeditus, is preferred. 4. Montibus atque

copiis hostium, &c. Antonius with a large army was close in his rear, Metellus, with his three legions, in front; and his own force was now greatly reduced : - neque fugæ neque præsidii ullam spem, “and that there was no hope either of escape or assistance.Neque non aut must sometimes be so resolved, as here, in rendering into English. See Ch. XXXVI., 4.

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LVIII.-1. Compertum habeo. $ 146, Obs. 1. 2. Moribus, “By habit:”

patere, to appear,” “to show itself.” 3. Hor tere, i. e., licet ut hortere, “You may exhort." See Ch. XXV., 3, with

auribus officit, “ obstructs his ears." 4. Mei consilii, Of my resolution,” scil., to risk a battle with Antonius. 5. Quo et quomodo, “And how:"

in quo loco, “in what situation;"

juxta mecum, “equally with myself,” i. e., as I do.

6. Unus ab urbe, namely, that of Antonius, alter a Gallia, scil., that of Metellus. See above, LVII., 4: si maxime animus ferat, scil., nos, “if we should be ever so much inclined.” 7. Forti atque parato animo sitis. $ 106, R. vii. 8. Commeatus abunde (erunt), “Provisions in abundance:"

neque (quisquam) locus, &c. 9. Potuistis nonnulli, &c., "Some of you at Rome, after losing your own property, might have looked for assistance from others,” lit., “foreign help:” intoleranda viris, “not to be endured by men. $ 126, Obs. 3.

Viris is here emphatic:

hæc sequi, “to follow these measures,” “this course," namely, to take up arms to redress their wrongs. 10. Quis (contr. for quibus), “ With which :" averteris. See above, 3: ea vero, &c.; ea agreeing with dementia, instead of id, referring to the preceding clause, in fuga salutem sperare. Ch. VII., 5, with ref. 11. Me hortantur, “Encourage me:" necessitudo, scil., me hortatur. Cavete (ne) amittatis, “Take care that you lose not:". (scil., trucidantur).

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12. Sicuti pecora

LIX.--1. Signa canere, “The signals to sound,” taking canere intransitively — taking it transitively it would be, "to sound the signals.” In either way the meaning is the same: ipse pedes, “ he himself on foot :" pro loco atque copiis, “ in accordance with the nature of the ground, and the number of his troops.” 2. Ab dextra rupe aspera, “A craggy rock being on the right.” § 146, Obs. 10: reliquarum signa, &c., “he places the troops (lit., “the standards,” each maniple having its signum) of the remaining (twelve) cohorts in closer order as a reserve." 3. Ab his, &c., "From these (scil., the troops in reserve) he withdraws to the front line all the centurions, the picked men, the veteran soldiers, and all the best of the common soldiers furnished with arms." The evocati were veteran soldiers, who, after having served out their time, were invited (evocati) to serve again. They were exempt from the drudgery of camp service, occupied the place of honor in the field, and were usually distinguished for their skill and bravery. 4. Fæsulanum quendam, “One belonging to Fæsula :"

curare, “to take command:" cum libertis et colonis, “with his freedmen (see Ch. LI., 1), and the colonists of Sulla.” See Ch. XVI., 4. 5. Ex altera parte, scil., on the side of the republic: pedibus æger, “being lame:" legato, “his lieutenant.” Legatus properly means sent abroad;" hence, "an ambassador;" also, a person chosen by a consul, proconsul, proprætor, or commander, when abroad, to assist him in his public duties, and, in case of his absence or inability, as here, to take his place and perform his duties. Sometimes he was sent abroad to perform the duties of his principal who remained at home; hence the name legatus. 6. Nle, “That officer,” scil., Petreius : tumulti, genitive for tumultus, as elsewhere senati for senatus. $ 16, Obs. 2. %. (Ile) ipse, referring also to Petreius, but more emphatic, “He in person.”

8. Homo militaris .... accendebat, “Being a military man (an old soldier), &c., he fired the minds of the soldiers,” &c.

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LX.—1. Tuba, “With the trumpet.” The tuba was a straight wind instrument used in giving signals to the infantry; signals to the cavalry were given by the lituus, an instrument bent at the lower end, re. sembling the augur's staff. 2. Eo, “To that place.” In this sense eo is the old dative singular of is, and is equivalent to ei loco: unde = a quo :

- ferentariis, “by the light-armed troops,” so called from fero, because the weapons used by them were thrown against the

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