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“insensibly pass away:” sicuti anima (est), “as is the soul." 3. Corporis et fortunæ bonorum, “Of the advantages of person and of fortune:” incorruptus, not subject to decay.” § 49, 4: agit atque habet cuncta, neque ipse habetur (ab ullo negotio), “moves and controls (lit., holds) all things, and is not itself controlled by any thing."

4. Admiranda, To be wondered at:” ceterum, &c. Arrange, Ceterum sinunt ingenium, &c., “but they suffer the mind,” &c.: incultu, “through want of culture:” animi, “the employments of the mind.”

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artes

III.-1. Ex his (scil., artibus animi), “But of these:" omnis cura rerum publicarum, “all charge of public affairs :" hac tempestate, hoc tempore, “at this time;" abl. of time when : honos, “honor,” i. e., “honorable office:” quibus per fraudem is (scil., honos) fuit, “who obtained it by deceptive arts.” 2. Aut parentes, "Or subjects," meaning "subjected states," "conquered provinces,” from pareo "to obey.” Some think parentes is here from pario, and means “parents," "kindred;" but this does not accord so well with the context. Sallust combines these terms patriam et parentes in Cat. VI, and Jug. LXXXVII., in both of which parentes is commonly rendered “parents,” but may with equal propriety be rendered as here: quanquam et possis (scil., regère patriam, &c.), et delicta corrigas, “even if you have the power, and if you

should rectify abuses :" importunum est, “is attended with danger.” 3. Frustra autem niti, &c., “But to strive in vain (namely, to effect improvements), and to obtain nothing but hatred by all one's exertions (lit., by vexing one's self), is the part of extreme folly.” $ 108, R. xii., Expl. — 4. Nisi forte quem (for aliquem), &c., "Unless perhaps the base and pernicious humor possess some one:" gratificari, “to sacrifice," dependent on libido. § 144, Obs. 4.

IV.-1. Memoria rerum gestarum, “The recording of past events," i. e., “The writing of history:" cujus de virtute, &c., “and because many have spoken of the excellence of this (employment), I think this (namely, a dissertation concerning it) ought to be omitted by me:” prætereundum, supply thus, hoc mihi prætereundum esse, scil., cujus de virtute dicere. 2. Ne per insolentiam, &c. Arrange, Ne quis existimet (me), per insolentiam, extollere memet, laudando meum studium : per insolentiam, "from a feeling of vanity:" studium, “employment.” 3. Fore, qui .... nomen inertio im

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ex

ponant, “That some will give the name of slothfulness." $ 141, Obs. 1:

certe, quibus, “at least (those will do so) to whom.” The demonstrative is, ea, id, when the antecedent to a relative, is often omitted. $ 99, Obs. 1, 4th: salutare plebem, to court the favor of the populace:” conviviis, by feasts."

4. Qui si reputaverint, “But if these will reflect.” 99, Obs. 8: quibus temporibus. Sallust obtained the quæstorship by which he was entitled to a seat in the senate at the age of twenty-seven, soon after the conspiracy of Catiline, when the state was in great confusion by the proceedings of Clodius; and six years after this he was elected tribune of the commons :

quæ genera hominum. The reference here is to a large body of senators created by Cæsar, among whom were many undeserving persons, and many even from the lower classes of society, some of whom were not even free-born: magis mcrito quam ignavia, “on good grounds rather than from indolence:” aliorum negotiis, “from the active employments of others.” 5. Q. Maximum. This is the celebrated Fabius Maximus, surnamed Cunctator, who distinguished himself in the second Punic war: P. Scipionem, scil., Scipio Africanus the elder, the conqueror of Hannibal: majorum imagines, “the images of their ancestors.” Among the Romans those whose ancestors, or who themselves had borne any curule office, i. e., had been consul, prætor, censor, or curule ædile, were called nobiles, and had the right to make images of themselves, which they placed in the atrium or hall. These were busts made of wax; they were kept with great care by their posterity, and were carried out only in processions at funerals, and on solemn occasions. To have a great number of these was regarded as highly honorable, being an evidence of the antiquity of the family. 6. Scilicet is here scire licet, and to be so rendered, because on it depends the following infinitive with its subject, “One may know,” i. e., “it is manifest:”

egregiis viris, dative, dependent on pectore, $ 106, Obs. 5, egregiorum virorum ; so animum sibi above:

neque sedari, “and was not quenched.” %. His moribus, “In the present state of morals,” s 146, Obs. 10, or, “of these morals,” according to g 106, R. vii., i. e., “possessing the manners of the present day:” quin (- qui non, § 140, 3.).... contendat, &c., “who does not vie with his ancestors." 8. Homines novi, lit., “New men," "upstart nobles." Those were called novi homines, who were the first of their family to raise themselves to any a rule office. It is often used as an expression of contempt, though in reality highly honorable : furtim et

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per latrocinia, “by intrigue and

open

fraud :" bonis artibus, "by honorable means :" nituntur, “rise.”

9. Proinde quasi, “Just as if;" ac non perinde habeantur, ut, "and are not to be regarded just as. 10. Dum me civitatis, &c., “Whilst I am vexed and chagrined at the manners of my country” ($ 113, Exc. ii.): redeo, &c., put here for eo, or venio, “I come now to my subject.” Here ends the introduction to this history, which like that of the history of the conspiracy of Catiline is long, philosophical, and having but little connection with the subject.

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1.-1. Bellum scripturus sum, “I am about to write a history of the war,” lit., “ the war.” For the particular idea expressed by the periphrastic conjugation, see § 79, 8. During the progress of this war, there was commencing at Rome that struggle between the populares and the optimates which was in the end carried on with such senseless vehemence, that only the devastation of Italy put a stop to the civil discord (studiis civilibus), and that only a military despotism (first of Cæsar and afterwards of the triumvirate) was able to restore peace. This part of the description of the Jugurthine war, accordingly, is of the greatest importance in forming a correct idea of the history of Rome at that time: obviam itum est, “successful opposition was made,” “a check was given :" quce contentio, "and this contest.” $ 99, Obs. 8:

eoque vecordiæ, “tò such a height of madness.” Ch. I., 7: studiis civilibus, to civil dissensions." 2. Pauca supra repetam, “I will take a short review,” lit., “I will trace farther back a few things :" quo, “in order that:”

magisque in aperto, scil., loco, lit., "and more in an open place,” i. e., “in a more conspicuous point of view." 3. Bello Punico secundo. The Punic wars, i. e., the wars against the Carthaginians, were three in number. The first was undertaken B. C. 264, lasted 23 years, and ended in favor of the Romans. The second began B. o. 218, in which the Romans sustained severe reverses from the Carthaginians under Hannibal, in the battles of Trebia, the lake Thrasymenus, and Cannæ, but were at last victorious in the decisive battle of Zama, which terminated the war in B. C. 201. For fifty years after this, there was no open war between Rome and Carthage ; but neither was there any cordial peace; on the contrary there was constant jealousy and suspicion.—Carthage again violated the former treaty by sending a force against Masinissa, the ally of the Romans; the consequence of which was that the Romans sent an army into Africa. Unwilling to

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come to an open rupture with the Romans, they manifested a wish to appease them by any sacrifice. The Romans, taking advantage of this, stript them of all their strength and means of defence, and then sent an army to destroy their city. After the designs of the Romans became manifest, disabled as they were, they made desperate, but vain resistance for the space of three years, when the city was taken by Scipio and burnt to the ground, B. c. 147, and Carthage rose no more.

4. Post magnitudinem nominis Romani, lit., “Since the greatness of the Roman name,” i. e., “After the Roman name had become great."

5. Rex Numidarum. Numidia was a country of Africa east of Mauritania, and corresponding nearly to modern Algiers. It was originally divided into two petty kingdoms, that of the Massyli to the east, of which Masinissa was king, and that of the Massæsyli to the west, governed by Syphax, who, having taken part with the Carthaginians, was conquered by Lælius and Masinissa, and his territory, after the close of the second Punic war, bestowed by the Romans on Masinissa during his life, who thus became king of all Numidia. As a people, the Numidians are represented by Sallust as warlike, but faithless, unsteady, and fond of revolutions in the state. 6. Cui postea Africano cognomen fuit. $ 97, Exc. 2: ob quce, scil., facinora, on account of these exploits :" cujus in Africa, &c., “whose dominion in Africa was powerful and of great extent.” The connection of the adjective and adverb here is rather singular: quascunque urbes et agros, "all the cities and lands which." $ 99, Obs. 7: regi (scil., Masinissc) dono. $ 114, R. xix. 7. Imperii vitæque ejus finis idem fuit. This does not mean that Masinissa continued to be king of Numidia till his death, though that is true, and is here expressed, but that the kingdom of Syphax was given to Masinissa only during his own life, and did not descend to his son.

Of course after his father's death, Micipsa reigned over that part of Numidia only which originally belonged to his father, while the other part, which had been taken from Syphax, of which Cirta was the capital, was by the Romans reduced into the form of a province. 8. Privatum reliquerat, Had left in a private station.” Masinissa had many sons, but as most of them were the sons of concubines, and did not become distinguished, as Jugurtha did, nothing is said of them.

VI.-1. Qui ubi primum adolevit, “As soon as he (Jugurtha) grew up:"

luxu, dative for luxui. $ 16, Exc. 2: equitare, jaculari, &c.; historical infinitives, § 144, Obs. 6; also the following agere,

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ferire, &c. : et

quum,

“and although :" ad hoc,“ moreover;" primus is here used adverbially. $ 98, Obs. 10. 2. Quibus rebus, “On account of these things ;" the ablative of cause : regno suo ploriæ fore, "would bring glory to his kingdom.” See Ch. V., 6, in fin.: postquam hominem, &c., “after he perceived that the young man increased more and more in reputation, his own life being now far spent, and his children (Adherbal and Hiempsal) small.”

3. Opportunitas suc, &c., “The favorable opportunity of his own and his children's age, which leads astray even unambitious men with the hope of advantage,” scil., terrebat eum, alarmed him.” 4. Studia Nuo midarum in Jugurtham accensa (sunt), “ The affections of the Numidians were ardent towards Jugurtha :" ex quibus, “ from whom,” scil., the Numidians : ne qua seditio, that some insurrection.” $ 140, Obs. 6: anxius erat, he was apprehensive,”- afraid.”

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VII.-1. Popularibus, To his countrymen.” 2. Bello Nu mantino, “In the Numantine war.” Numantia, a town in Spain, near the head of the Durius, was celebrated for its brave resistance against the Romans for the space of fourteen years, in which, with less than 10,000 men, they not only held out against 40,000 Romans, but frequently gained advantages over them, and obliged them to accede to dishonorable treaties. This was greatly owing to the natural strength of its position. It was, however, at last reduced by Scipio Africanus the younger, the conqueror of Carthage. 3. Longe aliter ac, “ Far otherwise than.” § 149, Obs. 6: impigro atque acri ingenio, of a quick and penetrating genius." 4. Romanis imperator, “General of the Romans.” $ 106, 01 5. 5. Quod difficillimum in primis est, “That which is of all things the most difficult.” $ 99, Obs. 1, 4th : in primis, sometimes imprimis in one word, is used as an adverb,

among the first,” " chiefly.” 6. Quorum alterum, “Of these things, the one,” namely, “to be good in council,' solet, &c. : -alterum, “the other," namely, “to be bold in battle,' solet, &c. %. Agere, habere, amplecti ; historical infinitives :

quippe cujus, &c., “inasmuch as no advice nor undertaking of his ever failed :" quês, contr. for quibus : multos ex Romanis = multos Romanorum. $ 107, Obs. 8.

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VIII.--1. Novi atque nobiles. See Ch. IV., 5 and 8: quibus divitiæ, &c., “ to whom wealth was of more importance than that which is good and honorable;” with bono and honesto supply negotio, Abl.

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