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$ 120, R. xxiv.: domi, scil., Romce : non mediocrem animum, “ the ambitious mind :"

pollicitando. Note the force of the frequentative: occidisset (from occīdo, not occīdo), should die :"

fore, uti solus, &c. This clause depends on pollicitando. $ 145, Obs. 6. 2. Donatum atque laudatum magnifice, “Being loaded with presents and lauded in the highest style :" pro concione, "publicly,” lit., “ in presence of the assembly :" in prætorium, “ into his tent.” 3. Publice quam privatim,

Publicly rather than privately,” i. e., by public services rather than by private interest.

4. Neu quibus (for aliquibus) largiri insuesceret, “ And that he should not make a practice of giving bribes to individuals." There was doubtless need for this advice; and Scipio probably had seen with displeasure the intimacy between Jugurtha and certain young ambitious Romans of doubtful character. 5. Periculose a paucis, &c. Arrange and supply thus, (id acc. subject of emi) quod esset multorum (§ 108, R. xii.) emi periculose a paucis : in suis (bonis) artibus, “in his virtuous practices :" suamet pecunia, " by the very means of his money."


ita esse,

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IX.-1. Cum litteris, “With a letter:” earum,

" of this." See Cat. XXXIV., 4:

quam rem = quod, subject of esse, and referring to the preceding clause : scio certo, “I know certainly,” “I am 2. Fama, “By common report:"

were true,” i. e., ita esse uti acceperat : quum virtute tum gratia viri, “both by the merit and the popularity of the man.” 3. Morbo atque cetate confectus, “ Exhausted with sickness and age:” hujuscemodi verba cum Jugurtha habuisse, “to have spoken with Jugurtha to this effect." Habere seems to be a favorite word with Sallust, and verba habere is sometimes used in the sense of orationem habere. The use of cum with Jugurtha intimates that this was spoken in conversation.

X.-1. Parvum, “When a child :" in meum regnum, “into my kingdom," viz., as one of my heirs. This was not exactly true, for the history, Ch. VII., shows he had far other views, and this was well anderstood by Jugurtha, as is mentioned in the next chapter: quam si (te) genuissem, “than if I had been your father.” Most editions after

quam insert liberis, making the meaning, “than to my children, if I should have any." This seems to be forced, and gives ground to suspect that liberis is an interpolation : neque ea res falsum me

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habuit, nor has that expectation disappointed me,”habuit fal.

fefellit. . 2. Amicissimos : Amicus is really an adjective, and hence is compared as here, though it is commonly used as a noun, -so also inimicus, familiaris, &c. 3. Per regni fidem, “ By the fidelity you owe my kingdom :" neu malis alienos (tibi) adjungere, "and that you do not choose rather to make friends of strangers.". 4. Officio et fide pariuntur, “ They are acquired by acts of kindness and fidelity.” The beautiful sentiments here expressed are borrowed from the dying advice of Cyrus to his sons. Xenophon's Cyropædeia. 5. Quis autem, supply debet esse. 6. Ceterum ante hos te .... decet, “But it becomes you rather than them," i. e., “it is your part rather than theirs,” lit., “in preference to them,” viz., his

ne aliter quid eveniat providere, “ to take care that nothing happen otherwise (than I could wish).” 7. Colite, observate, “Cherish, respect.”

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X1.-1. Ficta locutum (esse), “Spoke insincerely,” lit., “fictions :"

longe aliter, supply ac dicebat : pro tempore benigne respondit, “gave an affectionate answer, suited to the occasion.” 2. Justa, scil., funera, “ The funeral obsequies :" reguli (dim. of rex), “the princes,” viz., Adherbal, Hiempsal, and Jugurtha : ut disceptarent, “in order to confer.”

3. Natura ferox, Naturally high spirited :" ignobilitatem, “the ignoble birth :" materno genere,

“on the mother's side :" dextera Adherbalem assedit, “sat down by Adherbal on the right;" i. e., at the right hand side of Adherbal. The accusative is governed by ad in composition (adsedit), dextera = a dextera. There remained accordingly for Jugurtha only the place on the left of Adherbal, which was considered the least honorable of the three. This was intended, contrary to the advice of his father, to show disrespect to Jugurtha. 4. Fatigatus (scil., precibus) a fratre, “ Being importuned by his brother:” in alteram partem, “ to the other side (i. e., to the left side) of his brother."

5. Jacit, “Proposes." 6. Idem placere sibi, “That the same (proposal) pleased him :"

illum ipsum, " that he himself,” viz., Jugurtha: —tribus proximis annis, "within the last three years."

%. Quod verbum, “This remark.” 8. Ira et metri, &c., “ Distracted with rage and fear he plotted, he contrived, and had in his mind only those things.” § 144, Obs. 6. 9. Quæ ubi tardius (opinione or quam voluerat) procedunt, “ As these things proceed more slowly (than he wished)." $ 120, Obs. Ď

XII.-1. Propter disse:usionem, “On account of disagreement,” i. e., “to prevent disagreemert:" dividi thesauros, &c., “that the treasures should be divided, and limits of dominion appointed to each :"

sed maturius, “but first,” lit., “sooner.” 2. Propinqua thesauris, “Near the treasury:” alius alio, scil., loco, “one to one place, and another to another,” i, e., each to a different abode. $ 98, Obs. 11. 3. In oppido Thermida, &c., “In the town of Thermida, happened to occupy a house belonging to him who had been chief lictor (i. e., attendant) of Jugurtha.” The lictors went in single file before those whom they attended. The foremost was called primus lictor ; the last, as being nearest to his superior, was called proximus lictor. This place was assigned to the principal attendant, or chief of the lictors. Either the custom of the Romans had been adopted by the Numidian kings, or Sallust, accommodating his language to the custom of the Romans, calls the chief attendant proximus lictor. 4. Quem ille (Jugurtha) casu ministrum oblatum, &c., This tool (of his designs), thrown in his way by chance, he loads with promises :"

portarum claves adulterinas, “false keys for the gates of his house." The true keys had been given to Hiempsal when he took possession of the house, and of course, without keys, persons from without could not get into the house. 5. Qui postquam, “ After they:" quærere, “in different directions they sought the king.” These infinitives are historical: quum interim, “whilst in the mean time." Quum with interea or interim marks a simultaneous occurrence: quo, “whither,” “to which.”

diversi regem

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XIII.-1. In duas partes discedunt. “They separate into two parties :" illum alterum bello meliores sequuntur, " those better skilled in war follow the other,” scil., Jugurtha. Illum here is used for the sake of emphasis like the Greek article. 2. Partim (= alias) vi, &c., “Some by force, others of their own consent.” § 98, Obs. 12: omni Numidiæ (se) parat, “he prepares himself to rule over all Numidia,” i. e., he sets himself to be master of, &c. 3. Qui senatum docerent, “To inform the senate.” § 141, Obs. 2, 4th. 4. In provinciam, “Into the (Roman) province," namely, that part of Africa formerly bestowed on Masinissa during his life, but which, at his death, together with the territory taken from the Carthaginians, was formed into a province under a Roman governor. Ch. V., 7, and Ch. XIX. 5. Patratis consiliis, “ Having accomplished his designs:"

omnis Numidiæ, genitive after potiebatur. $ 121, Exc. 2:

timere, habere ; hist. inf.: iram ejus, “their resentment,” referring to populum Romanum. 6. Quis (for quibus) præcepit, “To whom he gave charge :"

quæcunque possint largiundo, &c., “not to hesitate to accomplish whatever they can by bribery.” 7. Hospitibus aliisque, “ To his friends and to others :" ex maxima invidia, “from the greatest odium :" in gratiam et favorem, “into the good graces and favor:”

singulos ex senatu ambiundo, &c., “by going round to each individual of the senate, they exerted themselves that nothing too severe should be determined against him.” 8. Satis confidunt, Are sufficiently confident,” i. e. feel sure that all is safe for them :

senatus utrisque datur, lit., "the senate (i. e, an audience on the part of the senate) is given to both;" namely, to Adherbal and the legates of Jugurtha.

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XIV.-1. Uti regni, &c., “To regard as mine, only the administration of the kingdom of Numidia, but that the right and the sovereignty of it was vested in you.” This is not a true representation, but is to be considered as the language of servility, by which a weak but amiable prince sought to recommend himself to the protection of the Roman senate: vos mihi cognatorum, &c., “to regard you as my relations and kinsmen.” After verbs of commanding, &c., ut with the subjunctive may be rendered as the infinitive. $ 145, Obs. 5, 3d. 2. Quæ quum præcepta, &c., “When I was actively carrying out these precepts of my father.” Note the force of the frequentative agitarem : jam ab stirpe, “and even by my ancestry.” - 3. Quoniam eo miseriarum venturus eram, “Since I was (destined) to come to such misery,” i. e., since this was my fate: vellem (me) posse .... petere, “I could have wished that I might bave been able to ask :" quibus non egerem, “of which I did not stand in need." § 121, R. xxv. Instead of the ablative quibus, the genitive might have been used. $ 121, Exc. 1: secundum ea, &c., “next to this, if they were to be needed, that I might have used them as favors due to me.” 4. Per se ipsa, to be translated as if per se ipsam. $ 98, Exc. 5. See Idioms, 33:

neque mihi in manu fuit, Jugurtha qualis foret, lit., what sort of a person Jugurtha would be in my power,” i. e., nor was it in my power to form the character of Jugurtha. The subject of fuit is the following clause, Jugurtha, &c.: oneri, usui, datives of the end. $ 114, R. xix. 5. Quo tempore magis fides ejus, &c., “A time in which their fidelity rather than their fortune was to be desired;" ejus refers to populo Romano, and is therefore rendered “their.” In

nor was

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the time of the Carthaginian war, the Romans were so much involved in difficulties that they could give but little assistance to their allies, on the other hand, serious disaster to the Romans would have involved their allies also. 6. Quorum progeniem, &c. Arrange, Vos nolite pati me progeniem quorum, nepotem Masinissæ, &c., “Do not suffer me—the offspring of these (ancestors)—the grandson of Masinissa,” &c. Here me has both progeniem and nepotem in apposition-quorum finds its antecedent in familia = majores. $ 99, Exc. 1.

7. Ad impetrandum, scil., auxilium : quod paulo ante, “ that (I) lately:". alienas opes exspecto, am looking for assistance from others :" tamen erat majestatis, “yet it would become the majesty.” $ 44, II., 3: neque,

“and not." 8. Huccine beneficia tua evasere, “Have your favors (viz., to Jugurtha) come to this :"-ut.

is quem, &c. Here the antecedent clause follows the relative clause ($ 99, Note), and in translating the order must be reversed :

semperne versabimur ? “shall we be always,” &c. ? : incolumes, “powerful,” “safe,” scil., from the dominion of the Romans.

9. Illa pestis, namely, the Carthaginians : quippe quis (for quibus), “as (those) to whom :" nisi forte quem (for aliquem)' vos jussissetis, “ unless such as you had appointed,” lit., “unless you had ordered any." When the Romans declared war against any people, the allies of the Romans were obliged to regard that people as their enemy also. 10. Sese efferens, “Exalting himself:” eodem suo propinquo, “and the same also his kinsman” (his cousin, Ch. V. in fin.): regnum ejus, “his (Hiem psal's) kingdom :" nequit, non quit : nihil minus, &c., “never expecting violence or war under your authority;" nihil minus quam means, lit., “nothing less than;" in other words, "any thing rather than,” i. e., “not at all,” “never”-a form of expression strongly negative:

sicuti videtis....

effecit," he has made me as you see,” &c. : tutius (adv.), “in greater safety tutior, “safer." 11. Qui. Arrange, eos, qui, “That those who.” See above, Note 8: ex omnibus maxime tutos = omnium tutissimos. $ 26, 9, and § 107, Obs. 8. 12. Quod in familia nostra fuit, præstitit, “Whatever was in the power of our family to do, it did :" adesset vobis, “that it might assist you.” 13. Tertium, &c. Arrange, Ratus est Jugurtham, tert conjunctum fore nobis suis benefi. ciis; tertium, having become a third (brother),” scil., by adoption:

suis, “ by his,” Micipsa's: Alter, scil., Hiempsal : alterius, scil., Jugurthe. 14. Quem minime decuit. Arrange, Pro

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