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fieri aiebant) quod, “others (said that this was done) because :" a pueritia consuetam, “become familiar to him from his boyhood :"

voluptati habuisset," he had considered as a pleasure.” $ 114, Obs. 4: nisi tamen, “still however," i. e., no matter from what motive.

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CI.-1. Citi. $ 98, Obs. 10: diversi (speculatores), “different scouts :" alius ab alia parte. $ 98, Obs. 11. 2. Jugurtham spes frustrata (est), "Jugurtha's expectation disappointed him," litu, “his expectation disappointed Jugurtha:" æque, “equally,” i. e., in any event: attigerant, “had come up to:” turmatim, &c., “in separate troops, and with their horses in as close order as possible.”

3. Bocchus cum peditibus .... invadunt. § 102, Obs. 2: neque....adfuerant, “and who had not been present.” · 4. Agebat, “Was engaged:” Numida, i. e., Jugurtha : clam convertit (se) ad pedites, “secretly turned away to some infantry”—most probably Roman infantry, as he is here said to have addressed them in Latin: sua manu, by his (Jugurtha's) hand:” sanguine oblitum, covered with blood,”—from oblino. 5. Quod ubi milites accepere, “When the soldiers heard this.” $ 99, Obs. 8. 6. Paulum ab fuga aberant, “Were nearly giving way;" avertitur, “is put to flight.” 7. Ab equitibus, “By the (Roman) cavalry:" omnibus occisis, scil., comitibus, "all his attendants being slain :" vitabundus, “with a desperate effort to escape.” 8. Auxilio suis. Ø 114, Obs. 1 :

quos (subject of pelli), “who.” $ 145, Obs. 2: sequi, fugere, occidi, capi, “they pursued,” &c., —

—a beautiful example of Asyndeton. $ 150, 1, 1st. 9. Aflicti, “Dashed to the ground:”

niti modo (surgere), “one moment they strove to rise :" qua visus erat, “ as far as the eye could reach,” lit., “where there was a view.” Visus, a noun.


CII.-1. Postea loci postea, “ Afterwards.” § 135, 1:profectus intenderat, "when he set out he had directed his march.”


2. Post diem quintum quam die quinto postquam, On the fifth day after:” duos quam fidissimos... (ut) mitteret.$ 140,Obs.5. See $ 145, Obs. 5, 3d, Note; and above, Ch. XCVII., 1: scil., commodo. 3. Qui quamquam acciti ibant, “Although they went on invitation." It was therefore proper they should wait to hear what Bocchus had to say; but instead of this, they began to speak first, for the reasons here mentioned:

aversum, "if disin

de suo,


in quo,


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clined” (to peace) : cujus facundiæ, &c., “to whose eloquence, not to his age, precedence was given by Manlius.” 4. Te.... uti aliquando .... malles, “You at length to choose.” § 122, Obs. 4:

talein virum, and optimum below, are intended as flattery: neu commaculares, “and not to stain:”. simul nobis demeres, "at the same time to take from us,” i. e., “to relieve us from.” The subjunctive thus used ($ 145, Obs. 5.) may often be rendered as the infinitive. 5. Errantem. The conduct of Bocchus he here softens down, by representing him as “erring" merely, as being misled. 6. Rati, scil., Romani, from populo Romano in the preceding clause. 7. Procul absumus, “We are a great way off:” circumstance in which :" - gratia par ac, “our friendship is just the same as :" dein, related to primum above: parentes (from pareo), “subjects,” lit., “persons obeying.” 8. Ad hoc tempus, “By this time:”

perpessus es, “you have suffered;" humanarum rerum ....

· pleraque. § 106, R. viii. : cui, scil., fortunæ. 9. Quo facilius, &c., “That by good services you may the more easily compensate for (past) errors.” 10. Unde vi Jugurtham expulerit, “From which he (Bocchus) had expelled Jugurtha by force.” Bocchus here states what was not true; for he had never driven Jugurtha from any part of Numidia, nor even opposed him in war. His object in this probably was to induce the Romans to think there was no friendly feeling between Jugurtha and him, and for this reason he would be a more desirable ally to the Romans. 11. Repulsum (esse) ab omicitia, “That he had been repelled from their friendship.” See abov, Ch. LXXX. : vetera omittere, “that he said nothing of things past." 12. Copia facta, “After permission was granted," scil., to send an embassy to Rome.

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CIU.-1. In loca sola, “Into the desert:" obsessum turrim regiam, “to besiege a fortress of the king.” § 148, 1: perfugas, “the deserters,” scil., from the Romans to him. See Ch. LVI., 2. These deserters he knew would make a most vigorous defence, well knowing what they would have to suffer if they fell into the hands of the Romans. 2. Venerant for evenerant, “Had happened :" incorruptos reliquerat, “had left unbribed.” 3. Si placeat, “If it pleased him," scil., Marius: sine decore, “without equipage:" pro prætore, “as prætor," i. e., commander-in-chief in his absence.

4. Pro vanis hostibus, “As fickle enemies ;" habuit in this clause signifies “to consider,” or, “regard,”-in the next by a Zeugma, “to treat:" accurate, “with attention :" gua re, “in consequence of this." 5. Largitio, “Giving money for bribery:" in benignitate habebantur, “were considered as acts of kindness.” 6. Regis sui, “Of their king:” benevolentiæ, fitted to gain good will;"—the dative of the end, § 114, R. xix., supply ei, Obs. 4, scil., regi Boccho.

CIV.—1. Marius postquam, confecto negotio quo intenderat (iter), Cirtam redit, As soon as Marius returns to Cirta, after he had finished the business in the place) whither he had directed his course. The readings in this clause are so various and unsettled, that it is difficult to know with certainty what Sallust did write. Of the reading in the text, it can be said only that it is as likely to be correct as any of the others:

cognoscit, “ he takes into consideration.” 2. Ea, “These things,” referring to potestas eundi and induciæ. $ 98, Obs. 3: ferocius, “more harshly:” in adversa, “ for the worse.” 3. Stipendium, “Money to pay the army:" quum-tum maxime, “not only—but especially:" libens accepit, “heard with great pleasure.” - 4. Postquam errasse regem, &c., “After they apologized (by acknowledging) that the king had committed an error, and had been misled by the wicked artifices of Jugurtha." 5. Delicti gratiam facit, “They pardon the offence.”

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CV.-1. Cujus arbitratu, “By whose intervention :" consule retur, used impersonally. $ 85, 3. 2. Funditorum Balearium, “Of Balearian slingers.” The inhabitants of the Balearian isles (Majorca, Minorca, Ivica) were celebrated in antiquity as slingers. Their weapon was a leathern sling, by which leaden bullets were thrown, with great skill and accuracy, a distance of 500 paces. 3. Cohors Peligna. The Pelignians were a people of central Italy near the Adriatic: velitaribus armis, “with arms used by the velites ;" scil., a round shield, a short sword, seven javeling with slender points, and a light helmet. 4. Cum mille non amplius equitibus, “With not more than a thousand cavalry.” $ 120, Obs. 3:

et numerum ampliorem .... efficiebant, “ both caused the number to appear greater, and excited,” &c. Here there is a ugma in efficiebant, i. e., it has a different meaning in each of the two clauses to which it belongs. $ 150, 1, 2d. 5. Se quisque expedire, &c., “Ench got himself ready (for the fight)—made trial of his arms and javeling-presented them against (towards) the enemy:" timor

aliquantus, scil., illis fuit : quippe victoribus, “because victors," Victoribus is in the dative agreeing with illis : uti erat, “as really was the case.”

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CV1.-1. Et præsidio, “And to be their guard.” § 114, Obs. 4.

2. Incerto vultu, “With a troubled look.” 3. Animo feroci, “ With stern resolution :". credere; with this infinitive, and mansurum potius (esse), supply dicit or dicens : mansurum potius quam, &c., “that he would stand his ground rather than, betraying his men whom he led, by base flight save a life uncertain (at the best), and perhaps soon to perish by disease.” Instead of parceret, the regular construction would require parsurum, being connected by quam with


may be accounted for by supposing an ellipsis; thus, mansurum potius, quam (commissurum ut) parceret. The indicative shows that quos ducebat is not the language of Sulla, but is thrown in by Sallust to explain (militibus) proditis. § 141, Obs. 5, 1st. 4. Cænatos esse, “To dispatch supper,” lit., “to have supped.”

The perfect infinitive, instead of the present, to express eagerness and haste:

ante eos, “before them,” scil., on the road by which they had to pass. 5. Fuere, qui dicerent, “Some said.” § 141, Obs. 1.


CVII.-1. Quanto sibi .... minus pepercissent, “The less they spared themselves :": nudum et cæcum corpus ad hostes vertere, “ to turn towards the enemy that part of the body which was unprotected and without eyes,” scil., to see and avoid approaching danger. 2. Nle, scil., Volux : orare ne ea crederet (dicens) nihil dolo factum (esse). § 145, Obs. 5, 3d, Note. 3. Cui, “By whom.” § 126, R. xxxiii. 4. Neque haberet, “He (Jugurtha), did not have:” ex suo patre, “on his (Volux’s) father:" i. e., Bocchus: credere “he (Volux) thought:” illum,“that he” (Jugurtha). 5. Quare optimum factu videri, “Wherefore he (Volux) thought it best,” lit., “the thing best to be done seemed to him to be:”

per media ejus castra, “through the midst of his (Jugurtha's) camp,"—perhaps made in two divisions, or in a very scattered manner: he himself” (Volux). 6. Ut in tali negotio, “ As the matter stood ” -intimating that, in other circumstances, so hazardous a course would not have been adopted. 7. Acciderant, “They had come upon him.”

sese, that

CVIII.-1. Multuin et familiariter agebat, “ Was holding much and friendly intercourse :" orator et subdole, &c., “as an ambas

sador, and (at the same time) craftily to spy out the designs of Bocchus.” $ 148, 1: impar, “inferior.” 2. Quem, “This man,', namely Dabar: nuntiatum, “to tell him.” § 148, 1: ipse, i. e., Sulla.

3. Consulta sese omnia, &c., “That he was keeping every subject of discussion with him untouched,” i. e., he was determining nothing by himself, but leaving every thing to be settled in conference with him-consulta, subs. consultum. 4. Neu Jugurthæ, &c., “In order that the common business might be transacted (between them) more freely, that he should disregard the ambassador of Jugurtha (whom he allowed at his court), for otherwise precaution could not be taken against his intrigues.” Bocchus here represents that the presence of the envoy of Jugurtha at his court need be no obstacle to the free discussion of their common affairs, that he permitted his presence as a matter of policy, to prevent suspicion on the part of Jugurtha. Whereas if he were dismissed, or not suffered to be present, his suspicions would be awakened, and there would be constant trouble and danger from his intrigues. In this sentence also the readings are various, and the true meaning not, well settled. 5. Magis Punica fide, &c., “More with treacherous intent, than for the reasons he pretended, kept both the Romans and Jugurtha amused with the hope of peace.Punica fides is the same thing as mala fides, and a sort of proverbial expression to denote treachery and perfidiousness — the Carthaginians being regarded by the Romans as eminently perfidious and deceitful. 6. Libidinem adversum nos, &c., “That his inclina. tion urged him against us- —his fear pleaded in our favor.”

CIX.-1. Pauca .... locuturum, “That he would say but little:” que

sibi responderentur, “what answer should be made to him," i. e., to Sulla by Bocchus, viz., in the presence of the envoy of Jugur. tha. 2. Quæsitum. § 148, 1: pacem, i. e., num pacem, § 140, 5, Note. 3. Ac (dicit) nihil, &c., “ And (says) that as yet he had decided on nothing :” ambo, i. e., Bocchus and Sulla.

4. Sanctus vir, et ex sententia ambobus, “A man of integrity, and acceptable to both parties.”

CX.-1. Nunquam ego ratus sum, “I never could have anticipated :" - fore uti

deberem. $ 145, Obs. 6: omnium, scil., regum : -privato homini. In the vocabulary of Bocchus, kings only are public characters; hence he calls Sulla “a private man:" orantibus, “at their request :"

“of my own accord.”



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