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probat, G. 481, IV.; 533; and that the pronoun of the first person, meac, 2 is changed to that of the third, suae, G. 533, 1.—Suae civitatis; G. 449.

1. Imperium, supreme authority, the highest authority, the command, 3 as of an army. —Obtenturus esset; a reason on the authority of Orgetorix. G. 520, II. —Quin totius Galliae, etc., that the Helvetii were the most powerful of all the Gauls. Totius Galliae = omnium Gallorum, and plurimum possent potentissimi essent.


2. Galliae; Partitive Genitive with plurimum. G. 396, III. 2. — Possent; G. 498, 3.- Se illis regna conciliaturum, that he would procure for them the sovereign power; i. e., in their respective states; hence, plural, regna.

4. Inter se dant, they (Casticus, Dumnorix, and Orgetorix) exchange; lit., give between (among) themselves. -Dant; Historical Present. G. 467, 1.-Regno occupato; G. 431, 2.

5. Per tres populos; G. 414, 5, 1). The Helvetii, Sequani, and Aedui are meant.

6. Galliae; G. 409, 3.

IV. Death of Orgetorix.

7. Ea res, this fact; i. c., the conspiracy of Orgetorix.-Per indicium=per indices, by informers, the abstract for the concrete.-Moribus; G. 414, 2.

8. Ex vinculis causam dicere, to make his defence in chains. Ex vinculis ; lit., out of chains. See note on ab Sequanis, p. 1, line 17.- Causam dicere; a forensic expression, to plead one's cause, to make one's defence.

9. Damnatum, if condemned. G. 578, III. It agrees with eum, the omitted object of sequi. Poenam sequi, etc. Poenam sequi is the subject of oportebat, and ut igni cremaretur is in apposition with poenam. G. 495, 3. Among the Gauls this seems to have been the usual punishment of traitors.

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10. Die constituta, on the appointed day. Abl. of Time, not Abl. Absol. G. 426.—Omnem suam familiam, his whole household, including all his slaves, clients, and dependants.

11. Ad, about, towards, often used, in this sense, with numerals.

12. Clientes obaeratosque. The clientes were dependants, retainers; the obaerati, debtors held to service.

13. Ne diceret; G. 490,

14. Se eripuit, he rescued himself, though probably not by force, but by the fear which his retainers inspired.

15. Armis; Abl. of Means. G. 414, 3.-Jus suum exsequi, to


3 maintain their authority; lit., to follow out their right. — Conaretur,

cogerent; G. 518, II. 1.

16. Magistratus; subject of cogerent.

17. Quin ipse sibi, etc., that he committed suicide; lit., but that he inflicted death upon himself.

18. Consciverit; G. 498, 3; 481, I. 2.

V. The Helvetii continue their Preparations.

19. Nihilo; G. 418.

20. Ut... exeant; in apposition with id. G. 363, 5; 495, 3. Such explanatory clauses are common in Caesar.- Ubi jam, i. c., in the third year after the plan was adopted. See p. 2, line 27.

21. Oppida, cities, towns. Oppidum and urbs are both used by Cacsar of the principal cities of Gaul, but the former is given by preference to those towns which are difficult of access or which are strongly fortified. See Syn. L. C. 473.

22. Numero; Abl. of Specification. G. 429.

24. Ut... essent; Subj. of Purpose. G. 489; 481, IV. - Domum reditionis spe, the hope of a return home. Domum; Accus. of Limit. G. 379, 3, 1).

25. Spe; G. 431.-Sublata; from tollo.-Pericula subeunda; G. 562.

26. Trium mensium... cibaria, meal (or flour) for three months; i. e., supplies for three months, lit., of three months.

27. Domo; G. 424, 2.-Rauracis; G. 385.

28. Finitimis; G. 441.- Eodem usi consilio, having adopted the same plan; i. e., the same as the Helvetii had adopted. G. 419. I. — Oppidis... exustis; G. 431.

29. Cum iis. Secum, which might have been used, would give prominence to the purpose of the Helvetii, while cum iis implies that the clause is Caesar's statement of the result. G. 449, 1, 2).

30. Trans Rhenum; i. e., east of the Rhine.

31. Oppugnarant, had assaulted. This evidently refers to an unsuccessful attempt to reduce the place. - Receptos. adsciscunt, they receive and ally to themselves as confederates. G. 579.


VI. The Helvetii prepare to march through the Province.

33. Quibus itineribus, by which, lit., by which ways. G. 445, 8; Syn. L. C. 156. The repetition of the antecedent adds emphasis. - Domo, from home; i. e., from their country. G. 424, 2.

34. Possent; G. 501.- Unum; in apposition with itinera. G. 363, 4.



35. Inter ... Juram

Rhodanum. See note, with plan, on a 3 lacu... Juram, p, 4, line 34.- Singuli carri. Observe the force of the distributive, wagons one by one, one at a time; i. e., a single wagon.

36. Ducerentur; G. 501, I. 1.— Altissimus, very high.-Ut possent; Subj. of Result. G. 489.

1. Allobrogum. This warlike people had been conquered by the Ro- 4 mans 121 B. C., but having revolted, they had recently (nuper) been again reduced to subjection, 61 B. C.

2. Is vado transitur, it is crossed by means of a ford is fordable. G. 414, 4.-Locis; G. 422.

4. Ad Helvetios pertinet, leads over to the Helvetii.

5. Allobrogibus ... viderentur; vel vi... paterentur; Indirect Discourse, dependent upon existimabant. The principal clauses are Allobrogibus... persuasuros and vi coacturos; the subordinate clauses, quod ...viderentur and ut... paterentur. Explain the Moods. G. 530, I.; 531. But observe that the Subjunctive in ut... paterentur is to be referred to G. 492, 2, as the Subjunctive would be required even in direct discourse. See also notes on perfacile esse, p. 2, line 7, and quod . . . obtenturus esset, p. 2, line 38.—Allobrogibus; G. 385. - Persuasuros, coacturos. Observe the omission of esse. G. 545, 3.

6. Bono animo, kindly disposed; lit., with (of) a good mind. G. 428. 7. Coacturos; from cogo. - Suos, eos. Suos refers to the subject of the clause; i. e., to the Allobroges, while eos refers to the subject of the principal clause, i. e., to the Helvetii. This clause might have been, ut se per ipsorum fines ire paterentur. G. 445, 1.

9. Qua die; G. 426; 445, 8. —Conveniant; G. 500.

10. Ante diem... Apriles die quinto ante Kalendas Apriles, on the fifth day before the Kalends of April; i. e., on the 28th of March. Ante must be construed with Kalendas, while diem (for die) is attracted into the Accus. by ante. G. 708, III. 3.- Lucio consulibus; G. 431, 2.

This was in the year 58 B. C.

VII. Caesar opposes the Helvetii.

12. Quum nuntiatum esset; G. 481, IV.; 518, II. - Eos ri; in apposition with id. G. 553, II.

13. Ab urbe, from the city; i. e., from Rome, where he received these tidings.


14. Quam... itineribus, by as long marches as possible. G. 170, 2. According to Plutarch he reached the Rhone in eight days. — In Galliam ulteriorem, into Ulterior, or Farther, Gaul; i. e., Gaul beyond the Alps; also called Gallia Transalpina, or simply Gallia, as on p. 1.

15. Ad Genevam, into the vicinity of Geneva. G. 379, 1, 1).— Pro


4 vinciae toti imperat, he levies upon the whole province; i. e., upon

Ulterior Gaul, which he had received as a province.

17. Legio una. This was the tenth legion, afterwards famous in the Gallic wars. The Roman legion contained originally 3000 infantry and 300 cavalry. In the time of Caesar it probably contained about 4500 men. -Pontem; i. e., the bridge over the Rhone. - Ad Genevam, near Ge


18. Certiores facti sunt, were informed; lit., were made more certain. 21. Qui dicerent, to say; lit., who should say. G. 500. Qui refers to legatos as its antecedent. - Sibi esse in ... facere liceat; Indirect Discourse. Direct Discourse thus: Nobis est in... facere, propterea ... habemus nullum; rogamus ut tua voluntate id nobis facere liceat. Explain the changes of Mood, Tense, Person, &c. G. 530-533. See note on Allobrogibus... paterentur, p. 4, line 5. -Sibi esse in animo, that it was their intention; lit., was to them in mind. G. 387; 449, 1. Observe that esse and rogare are the leading verbs in the principal clauses, and that the subject of esse is the clause, sine ullo... facere. G. 530, I. ; 549, 2. — Sine ullo maleficio, without doing any damage; lit., without any harm.

22. Quod ... nullum. Observe the emphatic position of nullum. G. 594, II.

23. Haberent, had. G. 529.-—Rogare, that they asked. The subject se is omitted. G. 545, 2.-Ut liceat; G. 492, 3. Liceat has id facere as its subject, and sibi as its indirect object. G. 549; 384. — Ejus voluntate, with his (Caesar's) consent. G. 414, 2.

24. Memoria tenebat, retained in (by means of) memory. - Memoria; Abl. of Means. Lucium Cassium. This defeat of the Roman army under Cassius occurred near the Lake of Geneva, 107 B. C., fortynine years before the arrival of Caesar in Gaul.

25. Occisum; supply esse. So also with pulsum, missum, and concedendum. G. 545, 3.

26. Sub jugum. The yoke was thus used as the symbol of submission and servitude. It consisted of a spear supported horizontally by two others placed in an upright position. -Concedendum; supply id, referring to the request of the Helvetii.

27. Inimico animo, with hostile feelings. G. 428. -Data facultate, if the opportunity should be granted. G. 431, 2.

28. Itineris faciendi. Construction? G. 562; 563.-Temperaturos, would refrain. Supply esse.

29. Spatium; here used of time.

30. Convenirent; G. 522, II.

31. Diem, time, lit., a day. It is the object of sumpturum.—Si quid vellent... reverterentur. In the Direct Discourse; i. e., in the original words of Caesar, this would be a conditional sentence of the first form


with the Imperative in the conclusion: Si quid vultis ... revertimini. G. 4 508, 2. For the Mood and Tense in the Indirect Discourse, see G. 530, II., 531; 481, II. 1. — Ad idus Apriles, on the ides of April; i. c., on the 13th of April. G. 708, I. 3.


VIII. The Helvetii attempt to force a Passage.

33. Legione, militibus; Abls. of Means, to be construed with perducit, he constructs. G. 414, 5, 1).

34. Qui . . . influit. Caesar speaks of the lake as flowing into the river, i. e., the river is the outlet of the lake. A lacu... ad Juram. These defences extended along the southern side of the Rhone, from the Lake of Geneva (Lemannus) to Mount Jura, and commanded all the fords of the Rhone by which the Helvetii could enter the Roman province. See the following plan.







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A. Pass between Mount Jura and the Rhone.

B. Caesar's Intrenchments on the south side of the Rhone.

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