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36. Millia... decem novem, nineteen miles (Roman measure). G. 378. The Roman mile was about twenty-five rods less than the English statute mile.

37. In altitudinem, in height, lit., into height.

38. Castella, redoubts, probably of earth.

1. Quo possit; G. 497.- Se invito, without his consent; lit. he being unwilling. G. 431.-Conarentur, possit. Here the Imperfect after the Historical Present, communit, corresponds to the actual time denoted by that verb, while the Present corresponds to its form. G. 481. IV.

3. Negat se posse dare, he says that he cannot grant; lit., he denies that he is able to give.― More et exemplo, consistently with the usage and example. Mos denotes established usage, exemplum simply an example or precedent. For construction, see G. 414, 2.

5. Vim facere, to use force; lit., to make force.— Conentur; G. 529. — Prohibiturum; i. c., se prohibiturum esse.

6. Ea spe dejecti, disappointed in this hope; i. c., in the hope of being permitted peaceably to pass through the province. G. 425.- Navibus junctis, by bridges of boats and by numerous rafts; lit., by vessels joined together and numerous rafts made. G. 414.

7. Alii vadis. While the Helvetii, as a body, attempt to cross the Rhone by means of bridges of boats, &c., some (alii) try the fords of the river.

8. Si perrumpere, having attempted to force a passage; lit., having tried whether (if) they were able to break through.-Si... possent; Indirect Question. G. 525, 1.

9. Operis munitione; i. c., the wall, redoubts, &c., mentioned above.

IX. The Helvetii prepare to pass through the Country of the Sequani.

11. Una... via; only the way through the Sequani; i. e., the narrow pass along the right bank of the Rhone, between the mountains and the river. See Syn. L. C. 156.

12. His; G. 385. - Sua sponte per se, of themselves; i. e., by their own unaided efforts.

13. Possent. Why in the Subjunctive? G. 518, I.

14. Ut... impetrarent, that they might obtain their request. G. 489. With this verb the object is often thus omitted. Eo deprecatore, by his intercession; lit., he being an intercessor. G. 431.

15. Gratia et largitione, on account of his popularity and generosity. - Plurimum poterat, had very great influence; lit., was powerful (able) very much. G. 380, 2.

17. In matrimonium duxerat, had married.


18. Novis rebus studebat, was eager for a revolution; lit., for new 5 things. G. 384.

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19. Sibi obstrictas, attached to himself. G. 384.

20. Rem suscipit, he undertakes the service; i. e., the negotiation in behalf of the Helvetii.


21. Uti inter perficit, causes them to exchange; lit., causes that they (the Helvetii and the Sequani) may give among themselves. — Dent; G. 492, 1.

22. Sequani; the subject of dent, to be supplied from the preceding line. Ne prohibeant, ut transeant; G. 490.

X. Caesar hastens to Italy for Re-enforcements.

24. Helvetiis esse in animo. Sec note on sibi esse in animo, p. 4, line 21.

25. Facere; G. 549, 2.

26. Quae civitas; Lat. idiom for civitatis quae, a state which; lit., which state. The antecedent, which would otherwise be civitatis, in apposition with Tolosatium, is inserted as the subject of the relative clause. G. 445, 8. This is a common idiom. See L. C. 477, 2.

27. Id si fieret. Observe emphatic position of id. G. 602, III. 1. 28. Futurum; supply esse. The clause ut... haberet is the subject of futurum (esse), though it also denotes result. G. 495, 2.

29. Locis... frumentariis, to open and very fertile districts.

31. Titum Labienum; one of Caesar's ablest officers in the Gallic war. He, however, abandoned the cause of his master at the commencement of the Civil war.-Legatum; Predicate Acc. G. 373, 1. — In Italiam, into Italy; i. e., into Cisalpine or Citerior Gaul, which was regarded as a part of Italy.

32. Magnis itineribus, by forced marches.

35. Quinque legionibus. These five legions, with the tenth which Caesar found in Gaul on his arrival, gave him in all six legions, besides the forces just raised in the province. These six legions were the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th.

36. Locis... occupatis; G. 431, 2.

37. Itinere; G. 425.-Compluribus his proeliis pulsis, having routed these in several encounters; lit., these having been routed, &c. G. 431. Join compluribus with proeliis, and pulsis with his.

38. Citerioris provinciae, ulterioris; i. e. Citerior Gaul and Ulterior Gaul, separated from each other by the Alps. 1. Extremum, the last town. -Die; G. 426. 4. Trans Rhodanum; i. c., west of the Rhone.




XI. The Aedui and others complain of the Helvetii.

5. Per angustias, through the narrow pass; i. e., the pass between the Jura and the Rhone. See p. 3, lines 34-38, and note on a lacu ... ad Juram. p. 4, line 34.

6. Pervenerant. This they had accomplished during the absence of Caesar in Italy.

7. Quum possent; G. 518, I.—Se suaque, themselves and their possessions. G. 441; 449.

9. Rogatum, to ask. G. 569.-Ita se, etc., that they had at all times deserved so well of the Roman people. —Omni tempore ; i. e., since their alliance with the Romans, more than sixty years before. The address of the ambassadors is reported in the Oratio Obliqua, depending upon the idea of saying involved in rogatum. G. 530, 1.

11. Agri vastari non debuerint, that their fields ought not to have been pillaged. G. 541, 3.-Liberi eorum= liberi sui; G. 449, 1. 1). 12. Debuerint; G. 482, 2.

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13. Ambarri. See Dict. - Necessarii et consanguinei, friends and relatives. Necessarii is a more comprehensive term than amici, and includes not only those who are bound together by the ties of friendship, but also those who are connected in business or in official relations. 14. Non facile, with difficulty; lit., not easily.

17. Demonstrant, inform, a common meaning in Caesar; lit., demonstrate, show. - Praeter agri solum, except the mere soil; lit., except the soil of the field.

18. Reliqui. This Genitive depends upon nihil, which is the subject of esse. G. 396, III. 2.- Quibus rebus, by these things. G. 453. — Non exspectandum sibi, that he ought not to wait. Supply esse. G. 388. 19. Dum... pervenirent; G. 522, II.

XII. Caesar conquers the Tigurini.

21. Flumen est Arar, there is a river (called) Arar, now the Saône. -Quod has flumen as its antecedent.

23. In utram partem, in which direction; lit. part. — Fluat; G. 525. -Possit; G. 489, 494.

24. Lintribus, canoes, made from the trunks of trees.-Transibant. Observe the force of the Imperfect, were crossing.

26. Flumen transduxisse. Here flumen depends upon trans, and partes upon duxisse. G. 374, 6.

27. Citra flumen, on this side of the river; i. e., on the east side. — De tertia vigilia, in the third watch; lit., from or out of. De implies that


the third watch had commenced, but not necessarily that much of it had 6 passed. It began at midnight. For the divisions of the Roman day and night, see G. 711, 1 and 2.

28. Castris. He was then encamped in the country of the Segusiani, between the Rhone and the Arar. See p. 6, line 3. Roman camps were always arranged with the utmost regularity, and fortified with the greatest care. They were usually square, and had a gate on each side. The gate nearest to the enemy was called porta praetoria, and the one opposite to it, porta decumana. The defences consisted of a trench, or fosse, usually twelve feet wide and nine deep, and a rampart of earth thickly set with sharp stakes. See note, with plan, on legionis decimae, p. 39, linc 30. See also Castra, Smith's Greek and Roman Antiq.

31. In silvas, in the forests. The Accusative is used because motion is implied, they fled into the forests and hid themselves.

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33. Hic pagus unus, this one canton.

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memoria, within the memory of our fathers. G.

35. Lucium Cassium. See note, p. 4, line 24.

37. Quae pars civitatis Helvetiae, ea: quae. Quae agrees with pars. G. 438, 1.

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ca pars civitatis Helvetiae

38. Princeps... persolvit, was the first to pay the penalty; lit., first paid. G. 442.

2. Ejus soceri Lucii Pisonis, of Lucius Piso, his (Caesar's) fatherin-law. This is Lucius Piso the consul, mentioned on p. 4, line 10. Caesar had married his daughter Calpurnia.

3. Lucium Pisonem... interfecerant, the Tigurini, in the same battle in which they had slain Cassius, had slain his lieutenant, Lucius Piso. Cassium depends upon interfecerant, to be supplied.

XIII. The Helvetii send Ambassadors to Caesar.

G. 490.

5. Ut posset; Purpose of faciendum curat. 6. Pontem... curat, causes a bridge to be constructed over the Arar, -probably a bridge of boats constructed from the vessels in which he conveyed his provisions up the river. See p. 8, line 31.

8. Quum id ... intelligerent, when they perceived that he had done in one day what they themselves had with the greatest difficulty accomplished in twenty days (namely), the crossing of the river; lit., that they should cross the river. Ut flumen transirent is in apposition with id. G. 363, 5; 495, 3.

11. Bello Cassiano, in their war with Cassius; lit., in the Cassian war. G. 426. This war, it will be remembered, was in the year 107 B. C. 12. Ita agit, he discourses as follows. The discourse itself is reported


7 in the Oratio Obliqua, and occupies the rest of the chapter.—Si pacem ... Helvetiorum; Conditional sentence of the First Form; in Direct Discourse thus: Si pacem... faciet, . . . ibunt . . . erunt Helvetii. . . . constitueris... volueris; sin · perseverabis, reminiscere, etc. Explain change of Moods and Tenses. G. 530-532.


13. Ibi futuros, would remain there. Supply esse.

14. Constituisset, voluisset. In the Direct Discourse these verbs would be in the Future Perfect. Hence the Pluperfect Subj. G. 532, 4. 15. Persequi; supply eos. —Perseveraret. The subject is Caesar. -Reminisceretur; G. 530, II. In the Direct Discourse we should have the Imperative reminiscere.

16. Veteris incommodi; G. 406, II. This refers to the defeat of Cassius.

17. Adortus esset, transissent, possent; verbs in the subordinate clauses of the Oratio Obliqua. G. 531.

19. Ne tribueret, despiceret, didicisse; verbs in the principal clauses of the Oratio Obliqua. In the Direct Discourse, the first and second would be in the Imperative, and the third in the Indicative. Hence the Subjunctive and the Infinitive here. G. 530, I. and II. — Ob eam rem, on this account; lit., on account of this thing ; i. e., quod . . . adortus esset, because he had surprised. — Ne suae... tribueret, he should not

ascribe it particularly to his own valor.

21. Quam ... niterentur, than to contend by means of stratagem, or to rely on ambuscades. — Dolo; Abl. of Means. — Insidiis; G. 419, II.

22. Ne committeret... caperet, that he should not cause the place (lit., that the place) where they should take their stand, to receive (lit., should receive) a name from the overthrow of the Roman people, &c. In the Direct Discourse, for committeret we should have the Pres. Imperative or Subj., ne committe or committas, do not cause; and instead of constitissent, the Fut. Perf. Indic. constiterimus, where we (the Helvetii) shall have taken our stand. For Mood and Tense, see G. 530, II.; 532, 4.

24. Memoriam proderet, transmit the remembrance; i. c., of the


XIV. Reply of Caesar.

25. His, to them; i. e., to the Helvetii. - Eo... dari, that less hesitation was allowed (lit., given) him on this account. Eo is an Abl. of Means. The reason is given in quod ... teneret. Observe that Caesar's reply, occupying most of the chapter, is in the Oratio Obliqua.

27. Eo gravius ferre, ctc., that he was the more indignant at this, the less it had happened through any fault (lit., desert) of the Roman people; e., because it had not happened through any fault. Eo gravius ferre ; lit., to bear by so much (by this) more heavily to be the more indignant.


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