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XII.-XV. The Suessiones, the Bellovaci, and the
Ambiani submit to Caesar.

35 19. Priusquam reciperent; G. 521, 1.

22. Oppugnare, expugnare. The first of these verbs means to assault, the second to take by assault.

24. Paucis defendentibus, though only a few defended it. G. 431, 2. 26. Vineas agere, to prepare the vineae. This expression usually means to push forward the vineae, which were movable sheds, and could be brought very near the walls of the besieged city. But in this instance they were not brought up to the walls till the next day. See line 29. See Dict., Vinea. Quaeque et ea quae.

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29. Aggere jacto. The agger was a mound of any suitable materials, as earth, wood, stone, thrown up before a besieged city. This mound was sometimes of vast dimensions, hundreds of feet in length, and of great height. See p. 134, line 2. Upon this were placed various towers, some stationary and others movable. These towers, some of which were ten or fifteen stories high, were furnished with all the engines and implements of ancient warfare. See also Dict., Turris.

32. Petentibus Remis... impetrant, they obtain their request, as the Remi ask that they may be spared.

34. Primis. Supply hominibus, in apposition with obsidibus.

35. Armis... traditis. Conquered towns were generally thus disarmed.

37. Qui quum, when they; i. e., the Bellovaci. G. 453.

36 2. Majores natu, elders; lit., greater by birth, or in age.

3. Sese... venire, that they committed themselves to (were coming into) his protection and power. G. 541; 550.

8. Post discessum Belgarum. See Chapter XI.

9. Ad eum, to him; i. e., to Caesar.

10. In fide... fuisse, had been (steadfast) in their fidelity and friendship to the Aeduan state.

11. Qui dicerent; G. 531.

14. Qui ejus. Supply eos.

17. Ut... utatur; G. 492, 3.

18. Quod si fecerit, if he (Caesar) would do this (quod).

20. Quorum auxiliis... consuerint, by whose aid and resources,

they (the Aedui) were accustomed, if any wars arose, to sustain them.

22. Honoris causa, as a mark of honor; construe with recepturum.
23. Eos, them; i. e., the Bellovaci.

24. Quod, as however. Et or sed may be supplied before quod.
25. Multitudine; G. 429.

30. Esse mercatoribus, that merchants had. G. 387.

31. Nihil vini, no wine; lit., nothing of wine. G. 396, III. 2. Nihil is the subject of inferri, which depends upon pati.

32. Quod... existimarent; G. 520. II.-Relanguescere animos, spirits are enfeebled; i. c., the spirits of men in general.

36. Confirmare. Supply subject, eos.

XVI.– XXVIII. War with the Nervii; they are completely subdued.

38. Eorum refers to the Nervii. - Triduum; G. 378.

1. Sabim. See Dict.-Amplius millia. G. 417, 3; 378.

3. Consedisse, had taken a position.

5. Eandem... fortunam, the same fortune of war; i. e., the same as the Nervii.


7. Mulieres; object of conjecisse. — Quique et cos qui, and those who.

8. In eum locum quo, in (into) a place to which (whither). G. 500, 1. 9. Exercitui, for an army.

11. Qui diligant; G. 500.

14. Eorum dierum... perspecta, having perceived our army's mode of marching during those days. Observe the accumulation of genitives, itineris depending upon consuetudine, dierum and exercitus upon itineris. 16. Inter singulas legiones, between the several legions. - Impedimentorum. This included all the heavy baggage of the army which was carried in wagons or on beasts of burden. The soldiers carried their arms, rations, and some few necessary utensils, as axes, saws, spades, &c. Thus encumbered the soldiers were said to be sub sarcinis, under their packs. See line 19, below.

17. Magnum numerum, a large amount; lit., a large number, used, perhaps, with reference to the number of wagons and beasts of burden. — Neque ... negotii, and that it would not be at all difficult; lit., nor was there anything of difficulty. G. 396, III. Quidquam is the Predicate after esse, while hanc sub sarcinis adoriri is the subject of esse.

. 20. Futurum ut auderent; G. 544.

21. Reliquae. Supply legiones. — Adjuvabat. The subject is the clause quod Nervii, etc.

23. Nihil; G. 380, 2.

25. Quo... impedirent; G. 497.


26..Teneris arboribus . . . interjectis, by heading down young trees and intertwining (inflexis) the numerous branches (crebris ramis) which grew out in a lateral direction (in latitudinem enatis), and by allowing brambles and briers to entwine themselves among them (lit., brambles and




37 briers having been inserted between). The Ablatives are all Absolute.


G. 431.

The student will observe that Caesar is not describing any temporary expedient to impede the progress of an army, but the permanent hedges in the country of the Nervii. They were the result of years of growth and care.

28. Instar muri, like a wall; lit., the likeness of a wall.


29. Quo in quod, into which.—Non modo, not only not. For the omission of non after modo, see G. 584, 2.

33. Erat haec, was as follows; lit., this. — Quem locum. Observe the repetition of the antecedent, not uncommon in Caesar.

34. Ab summo ... declivis, descending evenly from its summit. Declivis, descending; acclivis, ascending; hence, acclivitate, below, line 36.- Summo summo colle.

36. Pari, equal; i. e., like that of the other hill. — Adversus et contrarius, opposite to this, and facing it. Contrarius refers simply to the position of the hills, opposite each other; while adversus is more definite, and implies that corresponding sides of the two hills-i.e., the sides with the same slope― were turned towards each other; faced each other. In rendering it is better to bring in contrarius before adversus.

37. Infimus apertus, clear at its base. Infimus and apertus are both adjectives, agreeing with collis, but the first only specifies the part to which the second is applicable, as infimus collis means the lowest part of the hill; i. e., the base. G. 441, 6.

3. Pedum; Predicate Genitive. G. 401.

5. Copiis; G. 414, 7. — Aliter se habebat ac, was otherwise than. G. 459, 2.

7. Consuetudine sua, in accordance with his custom; i. C., when in the vicinity of the enemy. - Expeditas, unencumbered; i. e., without the heavy knapsacks which they usually carried.

8. Collocarat; for collocaverat. G. 234.

13. Silvas, silva. Silvas refers to the different portions of the forest, while silva means the forest as a whole.

15. Longius . . . ad finem, farther than; lit., farther than as far as (to what end).- Porrecta loca aperta, the extended open ground.

16. Cedentes. Supply eos.

17. Opere dimenso, the work having been measured off; i. e., the ground which the work or camp was to occupy.

20. Ita, ut... confirmaverant, just as (i. e., in the same order as) they had arranged their line of battle and their ranks within the woods, and as they themselves had encouraged each other to do.

23. His, these; i. e., the Roman cavalry.

25. In manibus nostris, close at hand.

26. Adverso colle, up the hill. G. 431.

27. Occupati erant; G. 575, 1.

30. Proponendum. Supply erat. —Quum oporteret, whenever it was necessary. G. 486, 5.


32. Qui. Supply ii. — Paulo longius, a little too far. G. 444, 1. Aggeris petendi causa, for the purpose of seeking materials for the rampart. Agge here refers to the defences of the camp.

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33. Signum dandum, the signal for battle was to be given. In line 31 signum tuba dandum refers to the signal to prepare for battle.


35. His difficultatibus subsidio, two things proved a relief against these difficulties. G. 390.

37. Quid fieri oporteret, what ought to be done; Indirect Question, depending upon praescribere and doceri.

38. Ipsi; subject of poterant.


2. Nisi munitis castris, unless the camp was fortified; i. c., until it 39 was fortified. G. 431, 3.

4. Nihil; G. 380, 2.

7. Quam... obtulit, in whatever direction chance presented.

8. Milites... quam uti retinerent, having addressed the soldiers in a speech not longer than to exhort them to retain. After quam supply cohortari. G. 492, 2.


11. Quod aberant; construc with signum dedit.—Quam quo, than; lit., than whither.

13. In alteram partem. He went to the right wing. See p. 40, line 30.

14. Pugnantibus occurrit, he found them (i. e., his men) fighting ; i. e., they had already engaged the enemy.

16. Insignia. These were plumes and other ornaments, which were usually laid aside on the march, but resumed before battle.

17. Scutisque... detrudenda, and for removing the coverings from the shields. The shields, when not in use, were protected by leathern coverings. Detrudenda indicates haste and violence. -Scutis; G. 386, 2.Quam; construe with partem.

18. Quaeque = et quae.

19. Ad haec constitit, near these he took his sta signa. — In quaerendis suis, in seeking his own; dard.

23. Quum, diversis

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resisterent, since, as the legions wore sepa

rated, some (i. e., some legions) resisted the enemy in one place, and others

in another. G. 431; 459, 1.

26. Subsidia; subject of poterant. — Quid . . . opus esset; Indirect Question, subject of poterat to be supplied.

29. Fortunae depends upon eventus.



30. Legionis nonae et decimae. For the disposition of Caesar's forces, and for the position and form of his camp, see the following plan.

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A B C D. Roman camp with a gate on each side. DEC.= porta decumana; PRAE. = porta praetoria; SIN.= porta principalis sinistra; DEX.=porta principalis dextra.

VII., VIII., etc. Caesar's legions with their respective numbers.

A A. The Atrebates,

V V. The Veromandui.

31. Acie; Genitive for aciei. G. 119, 4.

N N. The Nervii.

32. His refers to the soldiers of the ninth and tenth legions, and ea pars to the Atrebates.

34. Conantes agrees with eos; i. e., Atrebates.

35. Impeditam, entangled; i. e., in crossing the river.-Ipsi, they themselves; i. e., the Roman soldiers.

38. Diversae, other; lit., different.

2. Ex loco superiore, having descended from their higher position; i. e., in pursuit of the Veromandui.

3. Totis... nudatis castris. G. 431. It will be remembered that six legions were engaged in fortifying the camp when the attack began

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