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28. Usque eo, ut, so that; lit., to such an extent that.
29. Recipiendi sui, of retiring (betaking themselves); i. e., within the walls. G. 563, 4.
120 2. Qui occiderint; G. 519.
4. Barbaris; G. 398, 5.
casu, at this very moment, and in this condition of
9. Ad Caesarem, with Caesar; i. e., in Caesar's army.
10. Cujus mentionem. See pp. 40 and 47.
17. Per manus tractus, passed from hand to hand.
33. In signa manipulosque, among (into) the standards and maniples; i. e., into the ranks themselves. — Eo magis; construed with per
34. Cuneo facto; i. e., marshalling their forces in the form of a wedge, so as to penetrate and divide the enemy's line.
37. Alii. Supply censent.
121 7. Eo; construe with consilio.
15. Horum, of these; i. c., of the centurions.
22. Ut fidem non faceret, that he did not gain credence. G. 489.Missus, sent; i. e., by Caesar.
27. Incolumi exercitu, if the army (Cacsar's) were safe. G. 431, 2. 29. Ille; i. e., Caesar.- Unum questus, censuring one thing; explained by quod ... emissae.
31. Casu casui. G. 116, 4, 3).- Debuisse depends upon the idea of saying, implied in questus.
35. Rerum; Partitive Genitive with maxime admirandum. 36. Eo consilio, explained by ut... depopularentur. 122 2. Numero. Supply hominum.
7. Anni tempore, in consequence of the lateness of the season. crops had not been gathered at the proper time, and had consequently been beaten down by the heavy rains.
8. His pereundum; G. 388. Supply esse.
10. In eum... ventúm est, it came to such a point.
11. Ambiorigem circumspicerent, looked around for Ambiorix ; i. e., they claimed to have just seen him, and turned to see where he had gone.
16. Paulum defuisse videretur, little seemed to have been wanting.
22. Duarum damno; G. 414, 3.
23. Galliae; construe with concilio.
26. More majorum. The punishment was death by scourging.
27. Quibus; G. 385.- Aqua atque igni; G. 425.
31. Ad conventus agendos. See note on p. 29, line 20.
CAMPAIGN OF THE YEAR 52 B. C., IN THE CONSULSHIP OF
CN. POMPEIUS MAGNUS AND Q. METELLUS SCIPIO.
I. REVOLT OF SEVERAL GALLIC TRIBES. I.-XIV.
II. SIEGES OF AVARICUM AND GERGOVIA.
V. GENERAL REVOLT OF THE GAULS.
VI. SIEGE OF ALESIA. LXVIII.-XC.
I.-V. Revolt of the Carnutes and Arverni.
2. Clodii caede. The murder of Clodius, a prominent political lead- 123 er, was immediately followed in Rome by scenes of lawless violence.
3. Ut conjurarent, should take the military oath. The senate ordered a general levy throughout Italy.
6. Addunt, affingunt. The direct object is retineri. . . posse, the antecedent of quod.
15. Qui faciant; G. 500.
18. Ut... intercludatur; the purpose of rationem esse habendam. 26. Principes . . . facturos, that they will be the first of all to make
28. Ne res efferatur, lest their action should become known; the reason why they could not exchange hostages, as that step would attract attention.
29. Collatis... signis. By this act, symbolizing union, they pledge themselves to a common work.
1. Continetur, is comprised.
12. Clamore, by shouting; probably by heralds, stationed at intervals, transmitting the news from station to station.
14. Genabi; G. 421, II.
16. Audita sunt. Supply ca, the antecedent of quae.· Millium. Supply passuum.
18. Ibi, there; i. e., in the territory of the Arverni,
124 22. Incendit. Supply eos; i. e., clientes. - Ad arma concurritur,
they rush to arms; i. c., Vercingetorix and his opponents.
27. Quoscumque ... civitate, whomsoever of the citizens (lit., from the state) he has access to.
38. Quantum; object of efficiat. — Quodque ante tempus, and before what time.
125 5. Singulis . . . oculis, with one of their eyes put out. G. 431.
6. Reliquis documento, a warning to the others. G. 390.
9. Cadurcum, the Cadurcan, or one of the Cadurci.
11. Quorum in fide, under whose protection.
15. Qui quum, when they. G. 453; 445, 5.
19. Quibus id ... cognoverint, who, they ascertained, had this design (this of design). G. 387.
22. Quod ... constat, because it is not at all clear to us.
VI.-XIV. Caesar returns to Gaul, and enters vigorously upon the Campaign.
28. Magna... afficiebatur, he was in great doubt; lit., was affected by a great difficulty. 126 3. Provincialibus distinguishes the Ruteni of the Province from
those in Aquitania.
9. Quod putabat, because he (Lucterius) thought.
26. Opinione praeceperat, had conjectured. — Per causam, the pretence; used of a feigned purpose.
32. Nactus recentem equitatum, having obtained a fresh body of cavalry; i. e., a fresh escort for his rapid journey.
36. De sua salute, involving his safety.
37. Celeritate praecurreret, he might anticipate it by his rapid
127 3. Quos ibi... collocaverat. See p. 14, lines 28 to 32.
8. Ne deficeret explains difficultatem in line 6. — Ne, lest.
9. In eo, in him; i. e., in Caesar.
10. Videret, it (Gaul) would see.
15. Qui doceant; G. 501, I.; 445, 6.
20. Altero die, on the second day. G. 174, foot-note 1; 426. 30. Quod eo mitterent, to send thither; i. e., to Genabum. G. 500. 31. Diei tempore exclusus, being prevented (from commencing the attack) by the time of the day; i. e., by the lateness of the hour.
32. In posterum. Supply diem.
34. Continebat, connected; i. c., with the opposite side of the river.
1. Perpaucis desideratis ... caperentur, very few having escaped 128 being taken.
5. Exercitum Ligerim; G. 85, III. 1; 374, 6.
8. Oppugnatione ; i. e., of Gergovia. See p. 127, linc 3.- Caesari; G. 392.
9. Ille; i. e., Caesar.
12. Ut... conficeret; purpose of jubet.
21. Ex significatione Gallorum, from the conduct (indication) of the Gauls.
29. Ad agmen, to the main body of the army, still on the march; hence agmen.
35. Se, that he (Caesar). G. 545.
1. Longe alia atque, far other than. G. 459, 2.
2. Huic rei, to this object; explained by ut . . . prohibeantur. 4. Anni tempore, by the time of the year, as it was winter. 6. Petere. Supply id, referring to pabulum.
13. Neque interesse, and that it makes no difference. 17. Neu sint... neu, that they may be neither. 18. Romanis proposita, set before the Romans; i. e., become an invitation to them to plunder (ad copiam... tollendam).
20. Illa; explained by liberos... interfici.
XV.-XXXI. Siege of Avaricum.
27. Hoc solatii, this (of) consolation; explained by quod... confidebant.
34. Flumine; i. e., the Avara, now the Evre, which flows into the Loire.
9. Occurrebatur, the difficulty (lit., it) was met. —Ut iretur, so that 130 they went; i. e., by going.
16. Quorum alteri, of whom the latter. G. 459, 3.
21. Usque eo, ut, to such a degree that.
26. Si acerbius . . . ferrent, if they found the scarcity too severe.
29. Meruisse, had served; lit., had earned; i. e., their pay. Supply stipendia.
32. Quam parentarent; G. 496, 2.
2. Eo quo, to the place to which.
14. In civitates, according to states.
16. Haesitantes, sticking fast; i. e., in the mire.
17. Propinquitatem loci, the nearness of their position; i. e., to the enemy.
19. Iniquitatem conditionis, the inequality of situation; i. e., though the armies were so near to each other, the Gauls had every advantage in
Inani simulatione, with an empty show; i. c., of courage, as their pretended courage depended upon their situation.
27. Sua salute, his welfare, with special reference to success and reputation.
30. Vercingetorix; subject of respondit, in line 37.
31. Quod movisset; G. 520, II. — Romanos; G. 437, 1.
35. Potuisse depends upon a verb of saying implied in insimulatus.
37. Quod movisset, as to the fact that he had moved. G. 554, IV. I. 132 1. Persuasum sibi persuasum esse.
2. Qui refers to loci.
6. Cui rei, for which; i. c., for an engagement.
8. Fortunae habendam gratiam, they (the Gauls) should be grateful to fortune.
- Munitione, by its own defences.
9. Huic, to him; i. e., the informer.
15 Remittere, that he resigned the command. Supply imperium. 29. Tantum exercitum victorem, so large a victorious army. 33. Quod refers to armis increpat. — In eo, in the case of one. 35. Majore ratione, with greater wisdom. 133.1. Summam victoriae, the whole victory; and of course the glory
4. Cujusque modi, of every kind. Gauls.
- Gallorum, on the part of the
8. Cuniculis subtrahebant, they undermined. — Eo, on this account. 11. Turribus contabulaverant contabulatis turribus instruxerant, had furnished with towers several stories high.
15. Quotidianus agger, the daily addition to the mound.
16. Commissis malis, by uniting the uprights. The uprights at the corners, which at first projected far above the main part of the tower, were afterwards connected by horizontal beams, as one story after another was added, till the tower was finished.
17. Apertos morabantur = aperiebant et morabantur. G. 579.
19. Appropinquare prohibebant, prevented them (the mines) from approaching.
21. Perpetuae in longitudinem, continuous in length.
23. Introrsus, within the wall.
24. In fronte ... effarciuntur. This completes the description of one layer of the wall. The beams, which were two feet apart, extended through the wall, from one side to the other, and were connected within by long sticks of timber lying in the direction of the length of the wall. The spaces between the beams were filled with earth (multo aggere), except in front, where large stones (grandibus saxis) were used.
26. Idem intervallum. This refers to the interval between the beams in the second layer or tier, which, like that in the first, was two