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feet. It will be observed that the second layer was constructed precisely 133 like the first, but the beams in the second were probably placed upon the stone and earth in the first, and the stone and earth in the second upon the beams in the first.

31. Alternis... saxis; G. 431.


34. Perpetuis. quadragenos, by beams forty feet long; referring to the long sticks of timber by which the cross beams were bound together (revincta).

9. Ab... turrium, on each side of the (Roman) towers.

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occurreretur, whither they should first run to the de

15. Partitis temporibus, at stated times; i. e., in turn.

17. Reducerent, rolled back. These towers were on rollers. -Interscinderent, cut through; i. e., severed the fire from the rest of the mound.

22. Apertos, exposed; i. c., by the burning of their defences. Supply Romanos.

25. Accidit quod, there occurred an event which.

27. Per manus; construe with traditas.

28. E regione turris, opposite the tower.

33. Prius ille. Construe prius with quam and ille with locus.

37. Profugere; G. 563, 6.

9. Impediret; G. 485.

11. Non recipit, does not admit.

15. Directisque operibus, and the military engines were properly


20. In occulto, in concealment.

28. Obviam contra.


Contra is added to obviam to denote a hostile

30. Circumfundi. Supply subject Romanos.

32. Continenti impetu, with an uninterrupted struggle; i. e., without stopping.

36. Genabi caede, by the massacre at Genabum. See p. 124.

4. Ex... concursu, from their arrival in a body.

7. Quae.. castrorum = ad eam partem castrorum quac cuique civitati, to that part of the camp which had from the first fallen (obvenerat) to each state.

13. Errare. The subject is to be supplied from si qui. exspectent. 21. Consensu for consensui. G. 116, 4, 3).

29. Plus... praesentire, to discern and foresee more clearly. Praesentire is stronger than providere, and implies prophetic power. 31. Post deserendum. See p. 134, lines 36 to 38. 34. De... civitatibus; construc with in spem veniebant.





136 35. Galli; i e., the Celtic Gauls. The Nervii and some of the Aquitani had previously fortified their camps. See pp. 55 and 94.

36. Consternati, alarmed; i. e., in consequence of the loss of Avaricum.

137 4. Quorum; construe with oratione. Quisque, each one; i. e., of

the chiefs.

8. Quem, stating what number. Supply numerum.

14. Quos =cum iis quos.

XXXII. – LII. Disturbances among the Aedui. Siege of Gergovia.

23. Maxime necessario tempore, at a very critical time.

24. Singuli magistratus, a single magistrate; i. c., for each year; hence the distributive.

33. Cujusque corum, that each of them had. Supply esse.

138 4. Sibi refers to quae.

5. Praevertendum. Supply esse sibi.

8. Ne... videretur; construe with proficisci statuit.

G. 401.

10. Et quos inter et eos inter quos; G. 602, II. 1.- Decetiam; G. 379.

12. Alio... atque oportuerit, at a time and place other than was proper. G. 459, 2.

13. Fratrem a fratre; i. e., Cotus by Valetiacus.

24. Quae disponeret, that he might distribute them. G. 500.

30. Ab altera... parte, on the other side of the Allier.

32. Utrique esset in conspectu, was in sight of the other. G. 398, 5. 33. Castris depends upon e regione poneret.

139 4. Captis ... cohortibus, having selected certain cohorts ; i. c., to take the place of the two legions which remained behind. Caesar so arranged the cohorts of the four legions sent forward, as to give them the appearance of six legions.

7. In castra perventum, had come into camp; i. c., had encamped. Supply esse.

21. Qua despici poterat, from which one could look down.

31. Hostes; object of prohibituri.

32. Tamen refers to egregie munitus, etc.

36. Ad minora, to the smaller camp, situated upon the hill just captured.

140 8. Distineat; G. 501, II.

9. Qua transducta, if this were brought over; i. e., to the Gallic cause. 19. Decem illis millibus; G. 386. See p. 138, line 23.

28. Proditionis; G. 410, 2.

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37. Ut sibi consulat, to consult for their safety.

38. Quasi... sit res, as if it were a subject for deliberation; implying that there is but one course left for them. G. 401.



6. Qui ... una erant, who were with him, relying upon his protec- 141

tion. They were taking supplies to Caesar, as we see from the next line

- magnum numerum frumenti, etc.

11. Simili ratione atque, in the same manner as.

15. Pari aetate, genere dispari; G. 428; 595.

G. 587, I. 2.

19. In illa... controversia; i. e., the controversy between Convictolitavis and Cotus. See p. 137.

25. Quorum salutem . . . posset; G. 519.


26. Levi momento, of slight importance. G 416.

32. Ad contrahenda castra. The camp prepared for six legions

was of course too large to be properly guarded by two.

35. Paulo ante; construc with profugisse.

14. Quanto... fuerit, in how great peril the camp (thing) has been; 142

i. c., before the enemy withdrew at night.

21. Discessu eorum, after (at) the departure of these; i. c., of the


27. Ad cognoscendum, for ascertaining the facts in the case. 29. Generi; G. 391.

32. Adjuvat rem proclinatam, helps forward the ruinous movement. 36. Educunt, they lead out; i. e., by the promise of safety.

5. Quaestionem decernunt, they institute an investigation. 9. Ea res, that act; i. c., the plundering of property.

18. Omnem... contraheret, he might unite his whole army; i. e.. by effecting a junction with Labienus, who was in command of four legions. See p. 138, line 25.

29. Sed hunc silvestrem, but also covered with woods.

30. Ad alteram partem, to the other side.

31. Nec... sentire quin, and did not doubt that.

33. Ad hunc muniendum, to fortify this. Hunc refers to alterum (collem), in line 32, which again seems to refer to the woody height which gave access to the town.

36. Eo, thither; i. e., towards the hill which the Gauls were fortifying. This movement, as well as those described in the next twelve lines, was only a diversion by which Caesar hoped, while threatening this hill, suddenly to seize the Gallic camp.


2. Equitum specie, with the appearance of cavalry. These mounted 144 muleteers appeared in the distance like regular cavalry, and were here used to deceive the enemy. - Collibus, over the hills, where they could be seen by the enemy. G. 422, 1.

7. Certi quid esset, what it really was; lit., what of certain there was.


144 8. Eodem jugo, by the same range; i. e., the one by which the horse

men and muleteers went.

12. Raros, in small bodies.

17. Incommodi; construe with quid.

18. Occasionis esse rem, that the case demanded (was of) a surprise.
23. Huic. Supply ascensui.-Circuitus; construe with quidquid.
25. Ut... ferebat, so far as the form (nature) of the mountain permitted.
34. Superiore... parte nudata. He had laid aside his cuirass.
38. Signa constituit, brought the standards to a halt.

145 3. Retinebantur. Observe the force of the Imperfect. G. 469, 1.
15. Per manus demissae, let down by hand; i. e., by those upon the

18. Avaricensibus praemiis, by the rewards offered at Avaricum. See p. 135, lines 22 and 23.

23. Supra demonstravimus. See p. 143, line 34.

26. Ut quisque ... venerat, as soon as each one arrived.

33. Spatio, by the long continuance.

146 2. Hostes; subject of insequerentur.

5. Loco, numero, virtute; G. 419, II.

8. Manus... causa, for the purpose of dividing the forces ;

e., of

the enemy.Similitudine armorum, by the resemblance of their arms; i. c., to those of the enemy.

10. Dextris ... exsertis. The Gauls in the service of Caesar were thus distinguished from the enemy. - Insigne pacatum, the friendly sign.

20. Quos; G. 445, 6. The antecedent is implied in vestrae.

35. Infestis... signis, with hostile standards to the enemy.

147 5. Quid ipse... sensisset, what he himself had thought at AvariSee p. 131, lines 20 to 27.


8. Quanto opere — tanto opere, as much as —
12. Plus se sentire, that they knew more.

13. Se desiderare, that he (Caesar) desired.

so much.

LIII.- LVI. Revolt of the Aedui.

23. Reduxit, he (Caesar) led back.

31. Ipsos antecedere, that they themselves should go before him.
33. Perspectam habebat, clearly saw. G. 388, 1, 2).

37. Quos = quales, in what condition. Caesar reminded them of the condition in which he found the Aedui when he took them under his protection. See p. 16.

148 14. Bibracte... receptum, had been received by the Aedui into (at) Bibracte. G. 421, II.; 87, II. 1, (1).


23. Ne cui... Romanis, lest it should be of some use to the Romans. 148 G. 390.

24. Frumenti quod, whatever grain. G. 396, III.

30. Adjuvabat. The subject is the clause quod . 31. Ex nivibus, from the melting of the snows.



34. Si esset periclitandum, even if he must incur danger.

38. Quum-tum maxime, not only —but especially.

2. Abjuncto Labieno timebat, he feared for Labienus, who had 149 been detached.

5. Pro rei necessitate, in view of the urgency of the case.

LVII.-LXII. Expedition against the Parisii.

19. Confectus; G. 578, IV.

26. Iter munire, to secure a road.

32. Eo in eas; i. e., in naves.

36. Secundo flumine, down the river; i. c., upon the right bank of it. Labienus, finding it difficult to approach Lutetia from the left side of the Seine, retraced his steps, crossed the river at Melodunum, and proceeded down the right bank to Lutetia.

8. Qui refers to Bellovaci.

10. Longe aliud, atque; G. 459, 2.

15. Opinionem virtutis, reputation for valor.—Alteram. Supply partem.

17. A praesidio, from the garrison, referring to the force left at Agendicum to guard the baggage.-Interclusas distinebat; G. 579.

18. Maximum flumen; i. e., the Sequana.

22. Equitibus Romanis, to Roman knights.


27. Quinque ejusdem . mittit. All this was intended as a diversion. He ordered five cohorts and a number of boats to proceed up the river with a great noise, to attract the attention of the enemy, while he himself, with three legions, marched in silence down the river, which he crossed, four miles below, by means of vessels which he had sent in ad


1. Praeter... tumultuari, that there is an unusual tumult.
9. Quae progrediatur; G. 500.-Naves-lintres; i.


boats sent up the river by Labienus.

14. Retinerent. Supply ut. G. 493, 2.

15. Praesentem adesse, to be present in person.

19 Quam... concidissent; G. 515, I.

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24. Esset nuntiatum. The subject is the Indirect Question quae... gererentur.

31. Neque potuerunt, but were not able.



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