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Trier, i. 37 ; iii. 11; iv. 6, 10; v. 2, sq., 24, 47, 53; vi. 2, sq., 5, sq., 8, 29, 32, 41; vii. 63.

Tribocci, ōrum, m. A Germanic people in Gallia Belgica, in the vicinity of modern Strasburg, i. 51; iv. 10.

tribūnus, i, m. (trìbus, a tribe). A tribune, prop. one who presides over a tribe; tribunus militum, a tribune of the soldiers, a military tribune. Each legion had six of these officers, who commanded in turn, each two months at a time, i. 39; iii. 5.

tribuo, čre, ui, ūlum, v. tr. To impart, assign, give, distribute, present; to show, render, pay, manifest, v. 7; to grant, concede, allow, vi. 1; to ascribe, attribute, i. 13; vii. 53.

tribus. See Tres.

Tulingi, ōrum, m. A Germanic or Gallic people in Southern Germany or the northern part of Helvetia, i. 5, 25, 28, 29.

Tullius, i, m. See Cicero.
Tullus, i, m. See Volcatius.

tum, adv. Then, at that time; thereupon, moreover, furthermore; next, in the next place; and also; tum demum, then at length; quum tum etiam, not only ... but especially.

tumultuor, āri, ātus sum, v. dep. (tumultus). To make a disturbance; to be in great uproar; to be in great tumult, vii. 61.

tumultuōse, adv. (tŭmultus). With bustle or confusion, in great tumult, vii. 45.

tumultus, us, m. (tumeo, to swell).

tribūtum, ¿, n. (tribuo). Tax, im- An uproar, bustle, disturbance, viopost, tribute, vi. 14.

triduum, i, n. (tres, dies). The space of three days, three days, i. 26.

triennium, i, n. (tres, annus). The space of three years, three years, iv. 4. trīgēsimus, a, um, num. adj. ord. Thirtieth.

lent commotion; tumultus servilis, an insurrection of the slaves, i. 40.

tumulus, i, m. (tumeo, to swell). A raised heap of earth, mound, hillock. tunc, adv. (tum, ce). Then, at that time.

turma, ae, f. A division, squadron, a troop of horsemen of about thirty men, iv. 33.

trīginta, num. adj. indeel. Thirty. trīni, ac, a, num. adj. distr. (tres). Three by three, every three; three. Tŭrones, um, and Turoni, ōrum, Trinobantes, ium, m. A people m. A people of Gallia Celtica, in the of Britain, in modern Essex, v. 20, 21. | neighborhood of Tours, ii. 35; vii. 4, tripartito, adv. (tres, partior). In 75.

three divisions, v. 10.

turpis, e, adj. Ugly, unsightly;

triplex, icis, adj. (tres, plico, to unseemly; shameful, base, disgrace

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tristis, e, adj. Sad, sorrowful, de- dishonorably, disgracefully.


ful, infamous, dishonorable.

turpiter, adv. (turpis). In an unseemly manner, shamefully, basely,

turpītūdo, inis, f. (turpis). Dis

turris, is, f. 1) A tower. 2) A

camps, etc. 3) A attack, used in This was a high wood, from the

tristitia, ae, f. (tristis). Sadness, grace, shame. dejection, sorrow.

truncus, i, m. A trunk or stock military tower for defence, used in

of a tree.

tu, tui, pers. pron. Thou. tuba, ae, f. A trumpet. tueor, ēri, tuitus or tūtus sum, v. dep. To see, look at, gaze at; to care for, maintain, preserve, defend, protcct, vi. 34.

tuli. Sec Fero.

protecting bridges, military tower for sieges and assaults. movable tower of middle of which a bridge could be let down on the enemy's walls. It was stationed on the agger, and could be moved forward, as it stood on

wheels or rollers. Missiles were dis- | whence; often instead of e quo, e quicharged from the upper stories, ii. 30; iii. 21.

tūto, tūtius, adv. (tūtus). Safely, securely, without danger, in safety. tūtus, a, um, adj. (tueor). Safe, secure; free from danger, protected. tuus, a, um, poss. pron. (tu). Thy, thine.


ubi, adv. Where, in which place; when, after; as soon as, as; ubi primum, as soon as, iv. 12.

bus, etc., i. 28; iii. 14.

undĕcim, num. adj. indecl. (ūnus, děcem). Eleven.

undĕcĭmus, a, um, num. adj. ord. (undecim). Eleventh.

undēquadraginta, num. adj. indecl. (ūnus, de, quadrāginta). Thirtynine, vii. 87.

undique, adv. (unde, que). From all parts, on all sides, everywhere.

Unelli, ōrum, m. An Armoric people of Gallia Celtica, in the peninsula of Cotantin, Normandy, ii. 34; iii. 11, 17; vii. 75.

ūniversus, a, um, adj. (ūnus, verto). All, all taken collectively, whole, entire.

unquam, adv. (ūnus, quam). At any time, ever.

ūnus, a, um, num. adj. G. 149. One;

ŭbĭ-cumque, adv. Wherever, vii. 3. Ubii, ōrum, m. A people of Germany, on the right bank of the Lower Rhine, in the vicinity of Cologne, i. 54; iv. 3, 8, 11, 16, 19; vi. 9, 10, 29. ubique, adv. Anywhere, every-one and the same; only, alone, mercly; some one, a; ad unum omnes, all to a man, v. 37; the same; uno tempore, at the same time, ii. 19, 20; unā acstate, in the same summer, i. 54.


ulciscor, ci, ultus sum, v. dep. To avenge one's self upon, take vengeance on; to punish, chastise.

ullus, a, um, gen. ullius, G. 149, adj. Any, any one.

ulterior, us, gen. ōris, sup. ultimus, G. 166, adj. (ultra). Farther, on the farther side, beyond; the more remote, vi. 2.

ultimus, a, um, adj., sup. of ultĕrior. The farthest, most distant, iii. 27; iv. 16; the last, v. 43.

ultra, adv. and prep. with acc. Beyond, farther, on the farther side of, past.

ultro, adv. To the farther side, beyond, on the other side; ultro citroque, backwards and forwards, to and fro, hither and thither; besides, moreover, beyond; of one's own accord, voluntarily, i. 42.

ultus, a, um, part. from ulciscor. ŭlŭlātus, us, m. (ŭlulo, to howl). A howling, yelling; cries, shouts, v. 37. ūna, adv. (ūnus). At the same time, together with, ii. 17; usually in connection with cum, i. 5, 17.

urbānus, a, um, adj. (urbs). Of or relating to a city, esp. to Rome; urbanae res, affairs at Rome, vii. 6; urbano motu, disturbance in Rome, vii. 1. urbs, urbis, f. A city, vii. 15; the city of Rome, i. 7; vi. 1.

urgeo, ēre, ursi, v. tr. To press upon, oppress; to drive, push back, press hard, ii. 25.

ūrus, i, m. A kind of wild ox, the European bison, vi. 28.

Usipětes, um, m. A people of Germany, on the Rhine and the northern bank of the Lippe, iv. 1, 4, 16, 18; vi. 35.

ūsĭtātus, a, um, adj. (ūsĭtor, ūtor). Familiar, customary, common, vii. 22. usque, adv. Even, as far as. ūsus, a, um, part. from utor.

ūsus, us, m. (ūtor). Use, practice, skill, experience; advantage, benefit, profit, i. 30, 38, 50; iii. 14; need, necessity; usus est, there is need, it is necessary, it becomes requisite, iv. 2; usu venire, to occur, happen, come to

unde, adv. From which place, pass, vii. 9.

ut, or uti, adv. As, just as, like, i. 16, 22; ii. 1; inasmuch as, as, iii. 8; v. 43; ut qui, as one who, like one who, v. 31; of time: when, as, after; ut semel, as soon as, when once, i. 31. Conj., that, in order that, ii. 1, 9; so that, so as to; though, although, iii. 9; after verbs of fearing that not, G. 492, 4, 1).

ŭter, tra, trum, gen. utrius, G. 149, adj. Which of the two, which, i. 12; with uter or neuter, the other, v. 44.

ǎter-que, trăque, trumque, G. 149, 4, adj. Each one of the two, both, cach; uterque utrique in conspectu, cach in sight of the other, vii. 35; in utramque partem, in either direction, in either case, v. 29.

uti. See Ut.

ūtīlis, e, adj. (utor). Useful, beneficial, advantageous, serviceable, profitable.

utilitas, atis, f. (utilis). Usefulness, profit, advantage, service, benefit. ūtor, i, ūsus sum, v. dep. To use, make use of, avail one's self of, employ, exercise, manage; to practise, adopt, show, manifest, cherish, have, i. 46; ii. 28.

utrimque, adv. (uterque). From or on both sides, on each side, i. 50.

utrum, adv. (uter). Whether; in double questions followed by an or necne, G. 346, II. 2; i. 40, 50.

uxor, ōris, f. A wife, spouse.


văcatio, ōnis, f. (răco). Excmption from duty, freedom from service, immunity, vi. 14.

văco, āre, āvi, ātum, v. intr. To be unoccupied, to be uninhabited, i. 28; to lie waste, be uncultivated, iv. 3. văcuus, a, um, adj. (văco). Empty, free from, stripped of, destitute of,


vagīna, ae, f. sheath, v. 44.

A scabbard or

vǎgor, āri, ātus sum, v. dep. (văgus, roaming). To wander about, stroll, roam around, i. 2.

Văhălis, is, m. The Waal, the left arm of the Rhine, iv. 10.

văleo, ēre, ui, v. intr. To be strong or powerful, have strength or force; to avail, have weight or influcnce, be effectual.

Vălĕrius, i, m. 1) Caius Valerius Flaccus, a pro-praetor or governor of Gallia, 83 B. C., i. 47. 2) Lucius Vălerius Praeconinus, a Roman commander in Gaul before Caesar's time, iii. 20. 3) Caius Valerius Cabūrus, a Gaul who had been presented with the rights of Roman citizenship, i. 47; vii. 65. 4) Caius Vălĕrius Procillus, son of the preceding, a distinguished Gaul, and confidential friend of Caesar, i. 19, 47, 53. 5) Caius Valerius Donotaurus, a brother of the preceding, vii. 65.

Valetiăcus, i, m. A distinguished Aeduan, brother of Cotus, vii. 32.

vălētūdo, inis, f. (văleo). The state or condition of the body, health (good or bad); quum tenuissimā valetudine esset, although he was in very feeble health, v. 40.

valles, or vallis, is, f. A valley, vale.

vallum, i, n. (vallus). A wall or rampart of earth, set with palisades, a wall of circumvallation, rampart, intrenchment, i. 26; ii. 5.

vallus, i, m. A stake, palisade, vii. 73.

Vangiones, um, m. A Germanic people on the Rhine, near modern Worms, i. 51.

văriētas, ātis, f. (vărius). Diversity, variety, difference.

vărius, a, um, adj. Diverse, manifold, various, changing, varying, ii. 22.

vasto, are, avi, ātum, v. tr. (vasvădum, i, n. A ford; shallow tus). To lay waste, devastate, ravage, place, shoal, iii. 13.


vastus, a, um, adj. Vast, immense, enormous, very large.

vātĭcinātio, ōnis, f. (vāticinor, to foretell). A foretelling, a prophetic response, i. 50.

ve, enclitic particle (vel). Or. vectigal, ālis, n. (vectus, věho). A tax, toll, impost; revenue, income.

vectīgālis, e, adj. (vectigal). Taxable, tributary, iii. 8.

Věněti, ōrum, m. An Armoric people of Gallia Celtica. Their chief town was Dariorigum, now Vannes, ii. 34; iii. 7, 8, 9, 11, 16, sq.; vii. 75.

Věnětia, ae, f. The country of the Věněti, in Gallia Celtica, iii. 9.

Věněticus, a, um, adj. (Věnětia). Of or pertaining to the Venčti, Venetian, iii. 18; iv. 21.

věnia, ae, f. Indulgence, favor, kind

vectōrius, a, um, adj. (věho). Suit-ness, forbearance, forgiveness, pardon. able for carrying burdens; vectorium navigium, a transport ship, v. 8. věhĕmenter, věhěmentius, věhěmentissime, adv. (věhěmens, violent). Violently, forcibly; exceedingly, very much, strongly, i. 37.

věnio, īre, vēni, ventum, v. intr. To come, arrive at; to come into, enter into, fall into; to occur, happen; in spem venire, to indulge, cherish the hope; in fidem ac potestatem venire, to submit to one's protection and power,

věho, ĕre, vexi, vectum, v. tr. To i. e., to make an unconditional surrencarry, convey. der, ii. 13. Caesar often uses the pass.

vel, conj. Or, or indeed; even; vel impers. construction, ubi eo ventum ... vel, either. . . or.

Velanius, i, m. Quintus, a military tribune in Caesar's army, iii. 7, 8.

vēlim. See Volo.

Vellaunodunum, i. n. A town of the Senones in Gallia Celtica, vii. 11,


Vellāvi, ōrum, m. A people of Gallia Celtica, in modern Vélay, dependants of the Arverni, vii. 75.

Velocasses, ium, m. A people of Gallia Belgica. Their chief town was Rotomagus, now Rouen, ii. 4; vii. 75. vēlōcissime. See Velociter.

est, i. 43.

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vēlōcitas, ātis, f. (vēlox). Swiftness, rapidity, speed, velocity. vēlōciter, vēlōcius, vēlōcissime, adv. words, (relox). Rapidly, quickly.

vēlox, ōcis, adj. (vēlum). Swift, quick, rapid, i. 48.

Vercassivellaunus, i, m. A chief of the Arverni, cousin of Vercingeto

vēlum, i, n. (for věhůlum, from rix, vii. 76, 83, 85, 88.

těho). A sail.

Vercingétorix, igis, m.

One of věl-ut, adv. As, just as, as though; the Arverni, son of Celtillus, and comvelut si, just as if, i. 32. mander of the Gauls, vii. 4, 8, 9, 12,

vēnātio, ōnis, f. (vēnor, to hunt). 14, sq., 20, 28, etc., 89.

Hunting, the chase.

věreor, ēri, itus sum, v. dep. To

vēnātor, ōris, m. (renor, to hunt). stand in awe of; to respect; to fear, A hunter.

vendo, ĕre, didi, ditum, v. tr. (vēnum, a sale, do). To sell, expose for sale, ii. 33.

dread, be afraid of.

vergo, ère, -, v. intr. To incline, turn towards, tend; to lie, be situated towards, i. 1; ii. 18.

Vergobrětus, i, m. (a Celtic word). The title of the chief magistrate among the Acdui, i. 16.

vestīgium, i, n. A footstep, footprint, track, trace, vi. 27; spot, place, iv. 2; moment, point, iv. 5; e vestigio,

vērīsimilis, e, adj. (vērus, similis). on the spot, forthwith. Probable, likely, iii. 13.

věritus, a, um, part. from vĕreor. vēro, adv. and conj. (vērus). In truth, truly, assuredly, in fact; but in fact, but indeed, however.

Veromandui, ōrum, m. A people of Gallia Belgica. Their chief town was Augusta Veromanduōrum, now St. Quentin, on the Somme, ii. 4, 16, 23.

verso, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (freq. of verto). To turn often; to place in violent motion; sic fortuna utrumque versavit, fortune so directed or treated each in turn, v. 44.

versor, āri, ātus sum, v. dep. (verso). To move about in a place; to frequent, dwell, live, be; to occupy one's self with, be engaged in, be busy.

vestio, īre, īvi or ii, ilum, v. tr. (vestis). To clothe; to cover over, vii. 23. vestis, is, f. Clothing, garments. vestītus, us, m. (vestio). Clothing, dress, garment.

vētērānus, a, um, adj. (větus). Old, tried, practised, veteran.

věto, āre, ui, itum, v. tr. To forbid, not to permit; to prohibit, prevent. větus, ĕris, adj. Old, long standing, ancient.

vexillum, i, n. (věho). A military ensign, standard, flag, vi. 36; a red or crimson flag placed in the general's tent as a signal to prepare for action, ii. 20.

vexo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (freq. of věho). To disturb, annoy, vex, trouble, molest, harass.

via, ae, f. A way, road, passage;

versus, us, m. (verto). A verse, a march, journey; a passage or lane in a camp, v. 49.


versus, adv. (verto). Towards; in connection with a prep., ad oceanum versus, towards the ocean, vi. 33. Vertico, onis, m. One of the Nervii, v. 45, 49.

verto, ère, ti, sum, v. tr. and intr. To turn, turn around or about; terga vertere, to turn one's back, take to flight, flec. Intr., to change, turn around.

Verudoctius, i, m. A messenger of the Helvetii, sent to Caesar, i. 7. vērus, a, um, adj. True, actual, real, i. 18; right, reasonable, consistent, iv. 8.

viātor, ōris, m. (via). A traveller. vīcēni, ae, a, num. adj. distrib. (vīginti). Twenty each, twenty.

vīcēsimus, a, um, num. adj. ord. (viginti). Twentieth.

vīcies, num. adv. (viginti). Twenty times, v. 13.

vicinitas, atis, f. (vīcīnus, near.) The nearness, neighborhood, proximity; concrete, the neighbors, vi. 34.

vīcis, gen.; from obs. vix, f. Succession, change; in vicem, by turn, alternately, one after the other.

victima, ae, f. (vieo, to bind.) A beast for sacrifice, sacrifice, victim, vi.

věrūtum, ¿, n. (věru, a spit). A 16. dart, javelin, v. 44.

Vesontio, ōnis, m. A town of the Sequăni, in Gallia Belgica, now Besançon, i. 38, 39.

vesper, ĕris, and vespĕrus, i, m. The evening star; the evening; sub vesperum, towards evening, ii. 33.

vester, tra, trum, poss. pron. (vos). Your, yours.

victor, ōris, m. (vinco). A conqueror. Adj., victorious, i. 31; vii. 20.

victōria, ae, f. (victor). Victory. victus, us, m. (vivo). That which supports life, sustenance, provisions, nourishment, vi. 22; the way of life, mode of living, i. 31.

victus, a, um, part. from vinco. vicus, i, m. A village, hamlet.

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