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TABLE OF CICERO'S LIFE.

Year of Cicero's age.

1-16

CICERO'S BOYHOOD: From the first to the six-
teenth year of his age; from 106 to 91 B. C.

B. C.

CICERO was born on the 3d of January, 106 B. C., | 106–91 at Arpinum, in Latium. He was sent at an

early age to Rome to be educated. He studied

under the ablest teachers.

1

Birth of Cn. Pompey.

106

5

Victory of Marius over the Teutones, and of M. 102
Antonius, the orator, over the pirates.

The poet Archias, the instructor of Cicero, cams
to Rome. See Introduction, p. 214.

6

7

Victory of Marius and Catulus over the Cimbri. 101
Birth of C. Julius Caesar.

100

17-25

17

18

19

CICERO'S YOUTH: From the seventeenth to
the twenty-fifth year of his age; 90 to 82 B. C.
Cicero devoted himself especially to the study of
elocution, rhetoric, philosophy, and law. He
was a diligent student of Greek literature, and
an attentive listener in the courts of justice
and in the Forum.

90-82

Cicero assumed the toga, and was placed under 90 the instruction of Q. Mucius Scaevola, the

augur.

Beginning of the Social War.

Cicero served under Cn. Pompeius Strabo.

89

8888

Cicero studied philosophy under Philo, from the 88
Academy of Athens.

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Year of C.'s age. 19

225

End of the Social War. Beginning of the Mith-
ridatic War. Beginning of the Civil War be-
tween Marius and Sulla.

21 Death of Marius. Birth of Sallust, the historian.
Sulla made perpetual Dictator.

25

26

27

CICERO AT THE BAR: From the twenty-sixth
to the thirty-first year of his age; from 81 to
76 B. C.

Cicero's first appearance as an advocate. He de-
fended P. Quintius in the course of the year.
He distinguished himself by the defence of Sex.
Roscius.

80

28

He visited Athens, studied philosophy under An-
tiochus of Ascalon, elocution and rhetoric un-
der Demetrius, the Syrian.

79

Sulla resigned the dictatorship.

29

Cicero visited Asia Minor. At Rhodes he heard
Molo, the rhetorician, and Posidonius, the phi-
losopher.

78

30

He returned to Rome, married Terentia, and re-
sumed the practice of the law.

77

31

He defended Q. Roscius.

76

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CICERO'S POLITICAL CAREER: From the
thirty-second to the forty-fourth year of his
age; from 75 to 63 B. C.

Cicero, Quaestor in Sicily. He distinguished him-
self by his fidelity and integrity.

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33

He returned to Rome and resumed the practice
of his profession.

74

L. Lucullus took command against Mithridates.

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Year of

C.'s age. 40

Cn. Pompey was appointed commander in the
war against the pirates.

B. C.

67

41

Cicero, Praetor Urbanus. He delivered his Ora-
tion for the Manilian Law. See Introduction,
p. 232.

66

42

44

45

47

Cicero declined a provincial government.
Birth of Horace, the poet.

Cicero, consul, with C. Antonius as his colleague.
He delivered his four Orations against Cati-
line, suppressed the conspiracy, and was hailed
Father of his Country. See Introduction, p.
137. He opposed the Agrarian Law, and de-
fended L. Murena, the consul-elect.
Death of Mithridates.

CICERO AS EX-CONSUL: From the forty-fifth
year of his age to his death in his sixty-fourth
year; from 62 to 43 B. C.

Cicero delivered his Oration for the Poet Ar-
chias. See Introduction, p. 214. He also de-
fended P. Sulla, charged with complicity in
the conspiracy of Catiline.

Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, formed for mutual
support the coalition known as the first trium-
virate.

65

63

62

60

48

Consulship of Caesar and Bibulus. Cicero de-
fended L. Flaccus.

59

Birth of Livy, the historian.

49

Caesar went to Gaul with a commission as pro-
consul for five years.

58

Cicero was driven into exile under a bill pro

posed by his personal foe, P. Clodius.
went to Macedonia.

He

50

He was recalled from exile in August by a vote

57

of the people.

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Caesar's command in Gaul was extended for a
second period of five years.

Cicero wrote his De Republica, in six books.
Cicero was elected augur.

B. C.

55

54

53

55

Cicero defended Milo, charged with the murder
of P. Clodius, and wrote his De Legibus, prob-
ably during the year.

52

56

51

58

59

60

Cicero, Proconsul of Cilicia. He administered

the government well, and gained some glory in
the field. He was hailed Imperator.
Cicero returned to Rome on the 4th of January,

but did not enter the city, as he hoped to re-
ceive the honor of a triumph for his victories
in Cilicia. Civil war was already imminent.
Soon after, Caesar marched upon Rome, and
the senatorial party, panic-stricken, fled from
the city. At first, Cicero attempted to remain
neutral, but at length, in June, he joined Pom-
pey in Greece.

Caesar was made Dictator.

August 9th, Caesar defeated Pompey in the
memorable battle of Pharsalia. Soon after
this, Cicero, who had not been present in the
battle, returned to Italy. Pompey fled to
Egypt, where he was put to death.
Caesar engaged in the Alexandrine War.

Caesar having brought the Alexandrine War to
a close, returned to Italy, pardoned Cicero at
Brundisium, and allowed him to return to
Rome.

49

48

47

61

Caesar gained the victory of Thapsus, in Africa,
April 6th.

46

Cicero wrote his Brutus and his Orator. He

also delivered his Oration for Marcellus, and
his Oration for Ligarius. See Introductions,
pp. 262 and 271.

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