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Hannibal marches into Etruria. Battle of the Trasimene lake and

death of Flaminius. Consternation at Rome. Policy of the
Dictator Fabius Maximus. Rashness of Minucius, who is rescued
by Fabius. Hannibal devastates Campania. Battle of Cannae
and death of Paullus. The courage and patriotism of the tribune
Scipio. Honourable reception of Varro.

I. March, B.C. 217. Hannibal leaves his winter

quarters. Portents and expiations at Rome.

1. ver (Valla): vero P: cf. 21, Cf. 21, 58 and 59,1: et...et=the

58, 2.

two reasons for setting out.
itaque Wi.: P adpetebatque: intol. frig. abl. abs. =abl. of

vulg. quum. Madv. 358, 1: cf. cause—21, 53, 2; cf. ib. 58, 1.

19, 11; 10, 20, 9.

2. pro eo, ut... raperent'instead

hibernis: these were in Gallia of their plundering'; for pro cf.

Cis. near Placentia, whither he 23, 28, f. pro ope ferenda: for
probably returned from Liguria phrase cf. 30, 10, f. cum eo, ut
21, 59, 10: Pol. 3, 87 states that appareret; ib. 19, in. in eo, ut
the Carthaginians were encamped obtineant; 25, 6, m. ab eo, ut
in the open air, not in hibernacu- quaereretur; Caes. G. 5, 2 ab eo,
la built of wood, cf. L. 30, 3. quin possent: but pro eo, ut tulit

movit, et nequicquam (Valla): (C. Verr. 3, 53, 54)='in propor-
P metuit et neque eo quiiam. tion to what’.
D. L. II.

1

ipsi ex alieno agro raperent agerentque, suas terras sedem belli esse premique utriusque partis exeroituum hibernis videre, verterunt retro in Hannibalem ab Romanis odia; petitusque saepe principum in-3 sidiis, ipsorum inter se fraude, eadem levitate, qua consenserant, consensum indicantium, servatus erat, et mutando nunc vestem, nunc tegumenta capitis, errore etiam sese ab insidiis munierat. Ceterum hic quoque 4 ei timor causa fuit maturius movendi ex hibernis.

Per idem tempus Cn. Servilius consul Romae idibus Martiis magistratum iniit. Ibi quum de re 5

raperent agerentque: for more inconstancy in confessing, as in usual form cf. 3, 7: L. 24, 16 forming, the conspiracy': for portari agique—the latter word inter se cf. 21, 28, 11; ib. 39, 7 alludes to the driving away of and 9; so Plin. Ep. 7, 20 ut incattle, the others to inanimate vicem diligamus; cf. L. 29, 23 data and portable things. Livy's ultro citroque fide. Nägelsb. 282. phrase in Gk. would be åvti toll vestem: cf. Pol. 3, 78 ouolws de εκ της αλλοτρίας γης φέρειν και και τας εσθήτας μετελάμβανε τας άγειν: cf. Virg. Α. 2, 374, with καθηκούσας αεί ταϊς περιθέταις. Scotch expression they reave tegumenta c. cf. Pol. 1. C. KATand harry': for rapio=diripio erkeváo ato teplétas tpixas, åpcf. L. 40, 22 villas r.

μοζούσας ταϊς κατά τας ολοσχερείς hibernis, cf. 21, 56, 9: utrius- diapopàs Tv Ý NcKcWV ÉTTLT perelais, que, &c. 'of the two armies' (lit. kaì taútais expņTo, ouvexws ueraof the armies of either party- TLOÉMevos. Juv. 6, 120 represents i.e. Romans at Placentia and Messalina with a wig (galerus) of Cremona, and Carthaginians). golden hair, as Suet. Cal. 11 re

videre Alsch. : viderunt vulg. : presents Caligula (capillamento, uiderent P. The shortened perf. elsewhere he has galericulum). is archaic, as Weiss. remarks, errore confusion' or 'uncerand is therefore avoided by Cic. tainty' produced in others; or but is common in Liv. and other perhaps we should take it as historians, cf. 45, 8; 49, 12: Liv. cause rather than effect, as in 9, does not connect postquam with 5; 21, 63, 14. Nägelsb. 167. Cf. imperf. subj. in any certain in- 9, 15, f. ; 31, 33, m. ; Virg. A. 6, stance, but either with indic. 27. Pol. says that Hannibal's pres. 21, 13, 4; imperf. ib. 12, 4; disguise prevented him from being or pluperf. infr. 48, 4.

recognised by his familiar friends. verterunt &c. cf. 1, 53, 6. 4. hic timor, sup. 1; 21, 46, 7.

3. insidiis: but Pol. 23, 13 idibus M. Cf. 21, 63, 1. Liv. asserts υπ' ουδενός επεβουλεύθη. seems to refer to the Calendar as

ipsorum &c. 'he was preserved reformed by J, Caes., for at this by their own mutual treachery, time the Calendar was about two while they exhibited the same months in advance of the actual

publica rettulisset, redintegrata in C. Flaminium invidia est: duos se consules creasse, unum habere;

quod enim illi iustum imperium, quod auspicium 6 esse ? Magistratus id a domo, publicis privatisque

penatibus, Latinis feriis actis, sacrificio in monte per

fecto, votis rite in Capitolio nuncupatis, secum ferre; 7 nec privatum auspicia sequi, nec sine auspiciis pro

fectum in externo ea solo nova atque integra con8 cipere posse. Augebant metum prodigia ex pluribus

57, 14,

year, and the 15th of March the imperium on Camillus, when could scarcely agree with the at Ardea. Cf. 26, 2, in., where opening sentence of this book. the senate refuse to recognise Cf. 21, 53, 6.

Marcius as propraetor, because 5. de re p. &c. Cf. 11, 1; he had not duly received the im21, 6, 3.

perium. Cf. Ihne 'Early Rome', invidia=ira, 'odium'. Cf. L. p. 114. For a good comment on 3, 43 inv. Decemviralis. (invi- the text cf. 10, 8, 9: on iustum dentia active, invidia act. cf. 21, 3, 4: illi=Flaminio. and pass.) Cf. 21, 63, 6: for 6.

Magistratus (acc.)='maposition of est after part. cf. 21, gistrates only' op. privatum infr.

7: id=auspicium; cf. 21, 40, 3; duos...creasse: for the frequent ib. 63, 7 and 9—10. Flaminius ellipse of the verbum sentiendi or was declared vitio creatus; he declarandi to be supplied from should therefore have resigned foregoing cf. 19, 8; 21, 35, 8; his appointment, cf. infr. 33, 12. Mady. 403.

For the five species of auspicia quod...esse (emend. Lips.: P cf. Dict. Ant. p. 175. esset); for the rhetorical interro publicis : the entire Roman gation with infin. cf. 34,9; 40, 2; family, like individual families, 50, 5; 21, 30, 9. Mady. 405. had its Penates, worshipped in

iustum imp. Flaminius had probably two chapels on the Veleft the city without first obtaining lia, under the form of two youths the Lex curiata de imperio (after with lances. The oldest temple election in the Com. Centuriata), is identified with the vestibule of without which the consul could SS. Cosma e Damiano; the later not command in the field. Cf. = Sacellum Larum, Tac. A. 12, 5, 52, 16 Comitia curiata, quae 24; L. 45, 16. For publicis, &c. rem militarem continent; comitia cf. 25, 18, m. centuriata, quibus consules tribu Latinis &c. Cf. 21, 63, 8. nosque militares creatis ; Cic. 7. auspicia subj. of verb Leg. Agr. contra Rullum 12. sequi. Cf. 21, 63, 5. From 9, 38, f. it appears that ea (auspicia) concipere='to the consul himself proposed the formulate', 'announce in a prelaw, though we find an exception scribed formula' (conceptis verin 5, 46, f., where this law confers bis): for the solemnity cf. 1, 18,

simul locis nuntiata : in Sicilia militibus aliquot spicula, in Sardinia autem in muro circumeunti vigilias equiti scipionem, quem manu tenuerat, arsisse, et litora crebris ignibus fulsisse, et scuta duo sanguine 9 sudasse, et milites quosdam ictos fulminibus, et solis orbem minui visum, et Praeneste ardentes lapides

7-9. The verb is thus used with Madv. 369, 2. iusiurandum (ib. 32,8), dies, feri 9. sanguine: though this is readas, templum, &c. Cf. 5, 17, 2; ing of best MSS. we find sanguiSil. 13, 745 bella Latinis concepit. nem in other MSS. as well as in

8. militibus sc. Romanis. Cf. Val. Max.1, 6,5 who repeats (with 21, 49, 6: for dat.=gen. (com- this difference) scuta... .sudasse : mon in Liv.) cf. 1, 39, 1 puero so manare, rorare, stillare, pluere caput arsisse ferunt; Tac. A. 15, &c. take either acc. or abl. Cf. 7 has gen. pila militum arsere. 21, 62, 5; 27, 4, 14 signa sanRob. 1152. For the portent cf. guine sudasse. Liv. 33, 26, f.: Sil. It. 8, 628 : minuira partial eclipse; but such electrical flames on the heads it does not=deficio in astronoof spears (St Helmo's fire) were mical sense. usually considered good omens, Praeneste (mod. Palestrina, a cf. 43, 13, 6.

corruption of Praenestina [civi. autem late MSS.: audes P: tas], a town in Latium; cf. 12, one MS. has sudes, hence J. 2: for its origin cf. Virg. 7, 678. Gron. conj. Sulcis (Sulci being a It rejected the Latin League in town in S. W. of Sardinia, mod. favour of Rome-L. 2, 19: for S. Antioco).

their defeats by Cincinnatus circumeunti, &c. 'as he went cf. L. 6, 26, 29: for their serhis rounds', the mil. term was vices to Rome in this war, cf. L. fraxare=ěpodetelv Tàs pulakás : 23, 19, 20. Horace was fond of the duty was generally performed this place, cf. 0. 3, 4, 23; Ep. by two equites in each of the 1, 2, 1. It had a famous temple four watches, though at times by of Fortune Ov. F. 6, 61. The the superior officers, centurions, people had a peculiar dialect, tribunes, generals. Cf. 32, 26, f.; cf. Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 8; Quint. Sall. J. 45.

Inst. 1, 5, 56. Servius derives the scipionem 'a staff'=sceptrum name from apîvos, as the ilex (Juv. 10, 43) conn. with okýnto- abounded there; Festus from mai: for the proper name (cf. our praesto; Corss. 2, 216 regards * Reed') see Munro Lucr. 3, 1034. the termination as a superlative. It is uncertain whether the knight It was the great fortress of the used it as a support or a sign of Colonna family during the midoffice, like our baton.

dle ages. For locative cf. Caere tenuerat: Stroth conj. tenue. 21, 62, 8. rit, cf. infr. 11; but Liv. often lapides=single meteoric stones, uses indic. for subj. in or. obl. to be distinguished from a shower cf. 21, 20, 8; 4, 41, in. tenuerat: of stones, which had to be ex-.

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