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caelo cecidisse, et Arpis parmas in caelo visas pug10 nantemque cum luna solem, et Capenae duas inter

diu lunas ortas, et aquas Caeretes sanguine mixtas fluxisse fontemque ipsum Herculis cruentis manasse respersum maculis, et Antii metentibus cruentas in

corbem spicas cecidisse, et Faleriis caelum findi velut 11 magno hiatu visum, quaque patuerit, ingens lumen

effulsisse; sortes sua sponte attenuatas, unamque

piated by the nine days' festi- sin. Rup. conj. frontem ipsam, val' 21, 62, 6. Drak. prefers referring to his statue on the reading of late MS. lampades : Capitol. Cf. 9, 44, f. but text is supported by Plut. respersum C: P has spersum: Fab. 2 kal Aldous mèvèk Toll åépos vulg. sparsum. Cf. Epit. 50, in. διαπύρους και φλεγομένους φέρεσ- cicatricibus sparsum caput. . dai: on this and abl. caelo cf. 1, Antii late MSS.: P with three 31, 2; infr. 38, 8.

other MSS in Antii: J. F. Gron. Arpis : Arpi was an important conj. in Antiati sc. agro (excity of Apulia (mod. Arpa near pressed 8, 12, in.)—80 33, 26, f. Foggia); cf. 9, 5; 12, 3. in Capenati; 41, 21, f. in Lanuvi

10. Capenae: Capena was a no: the gen. here=in the neightown of Etruria (mod. Civitucola bourhood of Antium (a town in or S. Martino) at foot of Mt. So- Latium-mod. Porto d'Anzo). Cf. racte. Cf. L. 5, 10. Ch. and B. 21, 47, 7. This city was celerender 'Capua? through over- brated for the temple of Fortune sight.

cf. Hor. 0. 1, 35; here Cic. had interdiu, cf. 21, 32, 10; 1, 47, a villa (cf. Cic. Att. 2,1; Forsyth's 1. Gron. explains this word as Cic. p. 64); and here Caligula =interim dum diust. Plaut. Aul. and Nero were born. 1,1, 33 has form interdius--both metentibus : a similar portent =acc. neut.: cf. dius with diu, at the same place is mentioned as noctu diusque Titinius ap. 28, 11, 2: note part., not verbal, Char. The word is a collateral =transitory act. form of dies; cf. diurnus=dius. corbem sc. messoriam, still call

Corss. 2, 295. The root ed • la corbella' in Italy: for an div=brightness is found in bid- illustration cf. Rich s.v. uum (bid(i)uum), Deus, Alós. Faleriis : Falerii was a town

aquas C. Cf. 36, 7; 21, 62, of Etruria (mod. Civita Castel5. Caere was famous for its lana), first mentioned L. 4, 17 hot baths, the most celebrated as in alliance with Veii. being the “fountain of Hercules”. findi : cf. Sil. It. 1, 135 ruptoStrab. 5, 3. For Caerētes cf. que polo micat igneus aether. 5, 16, 5: Liv. also has Caerîtes 11. quaque patuerit ‘from the 7, 19, 20.

opening': for the circumlocution ipsum: the MS. reading=ipso- cf. Nägelsb. 123. rum sc. Caeritum, const. per syne. sortes: cf. 21, 62, 5 and 8.


excidisse ita scriptam : “Mavors telum suum concutit", et per idem tempus Romae signum Martis 12 Appia via ac simulacra luporum sudasse, et Capuae speciem caeli ardentis fuisse lunaeque inter imbrem cadentis

. Inde minoribus etiam dictu prodigiis fides 13 habita: capras lanatas quibusdam factas, et gallinam

excidisse, i.e. probably from the Appius Claudius Caecus B. C. string on which they were strung 312 extended from the Portogether.

ta Capena at Rome to Capua: scriptam=inscriptam: cf. Ov. cf. 15, 11; and Stat. S. 2, 2, 11 H. 14, 128; Mart. 11, 4, 3; so limite noto | Appia longarum teriscribam=inscribam Cat. 37, 10. tur regina viarum.

telum=hastam 21, 62,4. Plut. ac P: ad vulg. after late MSS. Fab. 2 strangely connects this (which Spillan renders at the with caelum findi, Toù s' ÚTèp sight of’). These `images’ no Φαλερίους ουρανού ραγήναι δόξαντος doubt stood near the statue of εκπίπτειν και διασπείρεσθαι πολλά Mars, as the wolf was sacred to ypaumateîa kai toútwy év &ye- him (cf. Hor. O. 1, 17, 9), and γραμμένον φανήναι κατά λέξιν had nurtured his children Romu"Αρης τα εαυτού όπλα σαλεύει. . lus and Remus. In memory of

Mavors = Mars (by contrac- the latter event I saw two wolves tion), another form of which is kept in a cage on the left of the Oscan Mamers. Cic. N. D. the steps ascending to the Capi3, 24 derives the name from tol. magna verto; others refer the sudasse sc. sanguine, sup. 9: first part to mas (maris); but it so Zon. 8, 22 alua ég ávalūátwv is probably conn.' with macto, woon. uáxn. His surnames Silvanus, Capuae : Capua (mod. S. MaGradivus, and Quirinus point to ria di Capoa) was the chief city his threefold character=God of of Campania, originally named country (agriculture, flocks, &c.), Vulturnus—for its etymology war, and state (Quirinus=the cf. 4, 37, 1: in the time of the spear-bearer fr.quiris). Cf. Keight. 1st Samnite war Livy describes Myth. 461. As the primitive chief it as urbs maxima opulentissimadivinity of the Italians he gave que Italiae 7, 31, 1. his name, not merely to the

Ro lunaeque: this portent, resemman ‘Plain' for exercise, but also bling a shooting-star, is also to the first month of the year mentioned by Jul. Obseq. C. (hence ‘March'cf. sup. 4; so Fr. Laelio L. Domitio Coss. VulMars, Mardi, It. Martedi, Sp. siniis novam lunam decidisse. Martes). Cf. 9, 9; 10, 9.

Drak, and Luterb. prefer lanaeq. 12. signum: this statue'doubt- cf. Oros. 7, 32 lana de nubibus less stood in the temple of Mars pluviae mixta defluxit. on the Appian Way, where we 13. minoribus dictu‘less impornow see the church of S. Sebas- tant': the pass. supine is protiano, cf. Ov. F. 6, 191. This perly a noun in the abl. = part road constructed by the censor concerned, and is used by Liv.

14 in marem, gallum in feminam sese vertisse. His,

sicut erant nuntiata, expositis auctoribusque in curiam 15 introductis, consul de religione patres consuluit. De

cretum, ut ea prodigia partim maioribus hostiis,

partim lactentibus procurarentur, et uti supplicatio 16 per triduum ad omnia pulvinaria haberetur; cetera,

quum decemviri libros inspexissent, ut ita fierent,

quemadmodum cordi esse divis e carminibus prae17 farentur. Decemvirorum monitu decretum est, Iovi

about 50 times, by Cic. 80, while they usually consulted the PonSall. has only 6, and Caes. 2. tifex Maximus as the head of the

lanatas sc. oves—so laniger, state religion. Cf. 10,1; Seeley bidens, setiger, sonipes: this de- Int. p. 96. scriptive nomenclature, is com decemviri, &c. Cf. 21, 62, 6. mon in Gk. Cf. ή ανθεμουργός, divis late MS. : P diuinis: J. έλλοψ, φερέοικος, αο.

Gron. Divi suis : Vulg. Divi : e is feminam=gallinam : for this due to Mady. cf. 10, 10. use cf. 21, 28, 8.

carminibus : the Greek Sibylsese vertisse=verti. Cf. se com- line oracles were written in a movisse=motam esse 21, 62, 4. poetical form; cf. 38, 45, in. car

14. sicut “just as' i.e. with- minibus Sibyllae; Virg. Ec. 4, 4 out addition or omission. Cf. (Conington's note). 21, 49, 6.

praefarentur 'in accordance expositis ‘having been detail- with what the Decemvirs should ed' (lit. “set forth') by the con- pronounce', 'declare’; Gron. sul Servilius at the sitting of conj. profarentur, so Madv.; but the senate, March 15.

text is supported by 5, 41, 3 auctoribus ‘his informants', praefante carmen; cf. 43, 13, 8 those who testified to these por- decemviri praeierunt; elsewhere tents.

edere, as 10, 10. 15. maioribus, cf. 21, 62, 7. 17. Decemvirorum Gron.: iduiServius states that old animals rorum P. were offered as victims, when the Iovi, &c. The famous temple object was to effect something of Juppiter Capitolinus was finspeedily; but young ones when ished under Tarquin the Proud: the desire was that something it contained three cellae, the should be increased or strength- centre belonging to Juppiter, and ened.

the other two to Juno and Milactentibus 'sucklings'. Cf. nerva, and was dedicated B.C. 37, 3, m.

506, L. 2, 8, m. Its site is occupulvinaria, cf. 21, 62, 9. pied by the present church of Ara

16. triduum: special efficacy Caeli. Cf. Meriv. 5, 31. On was attributed to the number Juppiter cf. infr. 9, 10; 10,9—10; three. Cf. 10, 7. Though the sen- 21, 63, 8. ate decreed the proper expiations,

primum donum fulmen aureum pondo quinquaginta fieret, et Iunoni Minervaeque ex argento dona darentur, et Iunoni reginae in Aventino Iunonique Sospitae Lanuvii maioribus hostiis sacrificaretur, matronaeque pecunia collata, quantum conferre cuique 18 commodum esset, donum Iunoni reginae in Aventinum ferrent, lectisterniumque fieret, et ut libertinae et ipsae, unde Feroniae donum daretur, pecuniam

primum: note absence of cor was the first occasion on which responding deinde. Cf. 2, 10; the freedmen were permitted 21, 62, 7.

to join in religious ceremonies, fulmen, 'thunderbolt’: cf. Ov. while at the same time they were F. 1, 202.

enrolled in the legions. Cf. 11, pondo sc. librarum. Cf. 21, 62, 8. On the three classes of freed. 8; infr. 23, 6; 37, 5.

men and the three ways of manufieret, for jussive subj. in quasi mission cf. Just. Inst. 1, 5 (Sandependence on decretum est. Cf. dars). A man was called liberRob. 1606.

tus (ameleúde pos) with respect to Iunoni, cf. 21, 62, 4 and 8: his patron (Hor. S. 2, 3, 122), Minervaeque, cf. 7, 3, m.: the but libertinus as to his condition. primitive form is Menerva, conn. unde = ex qua (sc. pecunia); with mens, moneo, hence in ar- cf. 49, 17; 21, 10, 9. chaic Lat. promenervat=monet. Fēroniae: the goddess Feronia Note hexameter ending.

had three sanctuaries in Italy, Sospitae, cf. 8, 14, 4: with this (1) at Feronia (mod. Acqua Fecollateral fem. of sospes cf. cli- lonica) in Etruria between Capeenta, hospita, antistita.

na and Mt. Soracte, which is 18. quantum sc. pecuniae : probably meant here, and 1, 30, Gron. prefers quantam (cf. 25, 12, 5 (though Preller R. Myth—cf. 14): P quintum conferrent quique. 357 and 377—refers the latter to

lectisternium, cf. 21, 62, 9. Trebula of the Sabines); (2) be

fieret C2: fieretque PC?; hence tween Pisae and Luna; (3) near Gron.reads fieret; quin (so vulg.): Tarracina (on site of mod. Torre for quin et cf. 33, 46, f.

di Terracina): in this temple et ipsae : i.e. as well as the there was a seat on which if a matrons. Stroth, accepting vulg. slave sat he received his freedom, et l. ut ipsae, understands the with the emblematical pileus. last words like the matrons This is the place referred to by themselves, on the ground that Virg. A. 7, 800; Tac. H. 3, 76; ipse='the master', ipsa'the mis- Hor. S. 1, 5, 24, where Torrentress'. Cf. Cat. 3,7. Macrob. 1,6, tius (and Seeley on Liv. 1, 13 mentions that during this war, 30, 5) quotes the Greek titles by direction of the Sibylline ora- given to this Sabine goddess, cles, freedwomen were allowed who presided over freedmen and to contribute, and their children flowers, i. e. 'Avondópos, P.NOOTÉto wear the praetexta. This pavos, and Depregóvn, Dion. Hal.

19 pro facultatibus suis conferrent. Haec ubi facta,

decemviri Ardeae in foro maioribus hostiis sacrificarunt. Postremo Decembri iam mense ad aedem Saturni Romae immolatum est, lectisterniumque

imperatum (et eum lectum senatores straverunt) 20 et convivium publicum, ac per urbem Saturnalia

diem ac noctem clamata, populusque eum diem festum habere ac servare in perpetuum iussus.

3, 32; Keightley's Myth. p. 483. Liv. often uses it parenthetically The name is variously derived a =et quidem. Cf. 21, 12, 7; 34, ferendis frugibus, or from feror= 32, in. pépoual alluding to the Lacedae senatores : this was unusual, monian colonists; but note quan- as the Duumvirs or Decemvirs tity of first vowel. Feronia was were charged with the entire arespecially worshipped by Sabines, rangement of the banquet for the Umbrians and Etruscans. gods. Cf. 5, 13, m. Duumviri

19. Ardeae : Ardea, which still sacris faciundis, lectisternio... retains its name, was the capi- facto, Apollinem ...... stratis lectal of the Rutuli in Latium: cf. tis placavere; cf. 21, 62, 9. 1, 57, 1; 21, 7, 2. No portent 20. S. clamata Gron.:clamatam had occurred here; thus too when P:clamatum vulg.: the latter may the columna rostrata on the Ca- be rendered “the people exclaimpitol was struck by lightning ed 'the Saturnalia !' throughout B.C. 172 a sacrifice was offered the day and night”(where Saturnot only on the spot, but also in nalia=voc.). Cf. 24, 10, f. inCampania, 40, 20, 3. In the fantem, Io triumphe! clamasse; city there was a celebrated tem- but cf. 21, 62, 2. The text, ple of Juno, and at some dis- however, is supported by Macrob. tance from the city one dedicated Sat. 1, 10, 18 apud aedem Saturto Aphrodite.

ni convivio dissoluto Saturnalia Decembri, B.C. 217. For a clamitabantur; cf. L. 45, 38, s. f. repetition of these ceremonies triumphum nomine cient. The cf. 9, 8.

cry was Io Saturnalial which Saturni : this temple was dedi- Burm. would read here. The cated B. C. 497, cf. 2, 21, in., and Saturnalia, analogous to was used as the state-treasury. Christmas festivities or the CarIt was situated at the foot of the nival at Rome, took place on Capitoline hill and at the top of Dec. 19, and at first lasted for the Forum, and was standing only one day (hence eum diem), almost entire when Poggio saw though subsequently for seven. it in the 15th cent. One sees Liv. 2, 21, in. places the institunow only eight Ionic columns of tion of the festival in B.c. 497. granite to mark the spot. For the liberty then accorded to

et eum: Madv. rejects et, but slaves cf. Hor. S. 2, 3, 5.


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