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avail. valēns, pres. p. as
adj., strong, vigorous; powerful,

Valerius, -i, M., a gentile name.
-E.g., 1. L. Valerius Flaccus,
cos. B.C. 100. 2. P. Valerius,
an unknown friend of Cicero.
As adj., Valerian: lex.
valētūdō (valīt-), -inis, F.,
health (good or bad).

vāllō, 1. v. a., intrench, defend.
valvae, -ārum, F. pl., folding|ish,

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vāstus, -a, -um, adj., empty, un-
occupied, waste, desolate.
vātēs, -is, C., a seer, prophet,
vāticinor, 1. v. dep., foretell, pre-
dict. Also, rave, rant.
Vatinius, -i, M., a gentile name.
-E.g., P. Vatinius, a witness
against Sestius.

varietās, -ātis, F., difference, di- vehementer, adv., eagerly, earversity, variation.

-ve, encl. conj., or.

vēcors (vae-), -cordis, adj., foolsenseless, mad, crazy.

vēctīgal, -ālis, N., a tax, impost;

income, revenue.

vēctīgālis, -e, adj., belonging to taxes; paying taxes, tributary. vector, -ōris, M., a carrier. Also, a rider, passenger. vehemēns, -entis, adj., violent, furious, impetuous.

nestly, ardently, impetuously; extremely, very, much. vehiculum, -i, N., a conveyance. vehō, vēxi, vēctus, -ere, a., carry, convey. - Pass., be carried, ride. Vēiēns, -ntis, adj., of Veii. -M. pl., the people of Veii. vel, conj., or. - Intensive, even: vel... vel (either . . . or). Velia, -ae, F., a town of Lucania. velle, see volo.

vēlōx, -ōcis, adj., swift. fleet. vēlum, -i, N., a sail. - Also, a curtain, canopy, veil.

Vārus, -i, M., a family name.

E.g., P. Attius Varus, a supporter of Pompeius. vas, vadis, M., a bail, security, vel-ut or vel-utī, adv., even as,


just as, like as.

vās, vāsiṣ, N. (pl. vāsa -ōrum), | vēna, -ae, F., a blood-vessel.

vēnālis, -e, adj., purchasable, venal.

a vessel, implement; baggage. vāstātiō, -ōnis, F., a ravaging, devastation, laying waste. vāstitās, -ātis, F., a waste, desert; desolation, ruin. vāstō, 1. v. a., lay waste, desolate, devastate, ruin, destroy.

vēnditiō, -ōnis, F., a sale. vēnditō, -āvī, -āre, a., try to sell. —Fig., cry up, praise, puff. vēndō, -didī, -ditus, -ere, a., sell; betray (for money); praise.

venēficus, -a, -um, adj., poison-
ous. -As subst., a poisoner.
venēnum, -i, N., poison.
vēneō, -ii, -ire (as pass. of ven-
do), n., go to sale, be sold.
veneror, 1. v. dep., worship,
adore; honor, revere; beg, pray

venia, -ae, F., indulgence, grace;
permission; pardon, remission.
veniō, vēni, ventus, -ire, n., come.
venter, -tris, M., the belly.
Ventidius, -i, M., a gentile name.
- Only P. Ventidius Bassus,
COS. B.C. 43.

venustās, -ātis, F., loveliness. venustus, -a, -um, adj., lovely, charming, winning, graceful. veprēcula, -ae, F., a little thornbush.

| fact, but indeed, however. — In
transitions, now, but, however.
Verrēs, -is, M., a family name.
Only of C. Cornelius Verres, see
p. 19, §§ 18-20.
versiculus, -i, M., a little line, a

versō (vorsō), 1. v. a., turn or whirl about. Fig., disturb, agitate; think over, consider, transact, carry on. In pass. with middle sense, dwell, live, stay, be. Fig., be, be circumstanced or situated; appear, present one's self; be occupied, engaged or busy with, take part in.

ventus, -i, M., the wind.

Venus, -eris, F., the goddess of versus (vor-), p.p. of verto.

versus (vor-), adv., in the direc-
tion of, toward.

versus (vor-), -ūs, M., a line,
row; a line of writing, a verse.
vertō (vor-), -ti, -sus, -ere, a. and
n., turn, turn around, about or
away; change, alter. - Pass., be
in or engaged in, turn or depend

vērum, -i, N., the truth: veri
similis (probable, likely).
vērum, adv., but, still.
vērum tamen, adv., but yet, how-
ever, nevertheless.

vērus, -a, -um, adj., true, real;


vēr, vēris, N., spring.
verberis (gen.), -ere (abl.), N.
(usually pl.), a lash, whip; a

verberō, 1. v. a., lash, scourge,
beat; torment.

verbōsē, adv., with many words. verbōsus, -a, -um, adj., full of words, prolix, verbose.

verbum, -i, N., a word, saying, right, proper, just.

expression, phrase.

vērē, adv., truly, really, in fact;
properly, rightly, aright.
verecundia, -ae, F., modesty.
vereor, 2. v. dep., reverence, re-
vere; fear, be afraid (of).
vērī-similis, see verum.
vēritās, -ātis, F., truthfulness,
truth, reality.

vērō, adv., in fact, in truth, cer-
- In a climax, even,
tainly, truly.
indeed. Adversative, but in

vesper, -eri or -eris, M., the evening: vesperī (locative), in the evening.

vespera, -ae, F., the evening. Vesta, -ae, F., goddess of the Household.

Vestālis, -e, adj., of Vesta.
vester, -tra, -trum, adj. pron.,
your, yours, of you (plural).
vestibulum, -i, N., an entrance
court, an entrance.
vestīgium, -i, N., a footprint,

track; mark, trace, vestige, ruins.

estīmentum, -ī, N., clothing. restiō, 4. v. a., dress, clothe; attire, adorn.

estis, -is, F., clothes, clothing: vestem mutare (put on mourning).

etus, -eris, adj., old, ancient.
vetustās, -ātis, F., old age, age;
ancient times, antiquity; long
duration, great age; posterity,
the remote future.
vēxātiō, -ōnis, F., discomfort,
hardships; a harassing, perse-

vēxātor, -ōris, M., one who dis-
tresses, an harasser, abuser.
vēxō, 1. v. a., shake, agitate. -
Fig., injure, molest, annoy, tor-
ment; waste, persecute.
via, -ae, F., a highway, street.
Fig., a way, method, course.
viātor, -ōris, M., a traveller.
Wibiēnus, -i, M., a family name.
-E.g., C. Vibienus, maltreated
by the slaves of Clodius.
Vibō, -ōnis, F., a town of the
Bruttii, see Map II.

-um, ord. num. adj., the twentieth.

́estītus, -ūs, M., clothing, dress, vicissim, adv., on the other hand, apparel: suum (usual). on the contrary, in turn. veterānus, -a, -um, adj., old, vicissitūdō, -inis, F., a change, veteran. -M. pl., veterans. alteration; varying fortunes. retō, -ui, -itus, -āre, a., forbid. victima, -ae, F., a sacrifice. Vettius, -i, M., a witness bribed victor, -ōris, M., a conqueror. by Clodius. In app. almost an adj., victorious. victōria, -ae, F., victory (in war). - Fig., success, triumph. victrix, -icis, F., she that conquers, a victor (of a woman). In app, almost an adj., victori


victus, p.p. of vinco.
victus, -ūs, M., means of living,
food, sustenance; way of life,
mode of living.

vīcus, -i, M., a block or row of
houses, street, ward; village.
vidēlicet, adv., clearly, evi-
dently. Ironical, forsooth, of

vīcī, see vinco.

vīcīnitās, -ātis, F., neighborhood, nearness, proximity.

vīcīnus, -a, -um, adj., near, in the neighborhood.— As subst. M., a neighbor.

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video, vidi, visus, -ére, see, perceive. Fig., observe, mark, understand; see to, care for. Pass., be looked upon, be regarded, seem, appear: videtur (it seems best).

vibrō, 1. v. a. and n., brandish,
shake; quiver, tremble; glit-

vicārius, -a, -um, adj., substi-
tuted, delegated. — As subst. M.,
a substitute, delegate, proxy.
vīcātim, adv., from street to
street; by streets.
vīcēsimus (vīg-, vīcēns-), -a,

vigeō, -ui, -ēre, n., be vigorous,
thrive, flourish; be esteemed, be

vīgēsumus, see vicesimus. vigilans, -ntis, adj., anxious, careful, watchful, vigilant. vigilanter, adv., with vigilance, watchfully, carefully.

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vigilia, -ae, F., a staying awake,
loss of sleep; pl., vigils, sleepless
nights. Also, vigilance, watch-
fulness; pl., sentinels, watch-
men. Mil. term, a watch, one
fourth of the night.

vigilō, 1. v. n., keep or lie awake;
be watchful or vigilant.
viginti, card. num. adj., twenty.
vīlis, -e, adj., cheap; worthless.
vīlitās, -ātis, F., cheapness.
villa, -ae, F., a country-house.
vinciō, -nxi, -nctus, -ire, a., bind,
fetter. Fig., confine, restrain.
vinclum, see vinculum.
vincō, vici, victus, -ere, a., con-
quer, defeat, subdue, vanquish.
- Fig., overcome, surpass, ex-
cel; carry one's point.
vinculum or vinclum, -i, N., a
bond, fetter; pl., imprisonment,
restraint, chains. — Fig., a link,
tie, bond.

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vindiciae, -arum F. pl., a legal claim; a decree, judgment. vindicō, 1. v. a., demand, claim, assert; deliver, protect, defend; avenge, punish.

vīnum, -i, N., wine.

violō, 1. v. a., injure, dishonor,
outrage; violate, profane.
vir, viri, M., a man; husband.
vīrēs, pl. of vis.

vīvō, vixi, -ere, n., live, have life,
be alive, pass one's life.
vīvus, -a, -um, adj., alive, living.
vix, adv., with difficulty, with
much ado, hardly, barely.

virga, -ae, F., a slender branch, a vix-dum, adv., hardly then,


visus, p.p. of video and viso.
vīta, -ae, F., life, real life, course
or way of life or living.
vitiō, 1. v. a., injure, spoil, mar,
corrupt, taint, vitiate.
vitiōsus, -a, -um, adj., faulty,
defective; bad, corrupt.
vitium, -i, N., a fault, defect,
blemish, imperfection, vice.
vītō, 1. v. a., shun, avoid, evade,
try to escape.
vitricus, -i, M., a step-father.
vituperātiō, -ōnis, F., blame, cen-
sure, a charge.

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virgō, -inis, F., a maiden, girl, vixi, see vivo.

vituperō, -āvi, -āre, a., blame, censure, disparage.

scarcely yet, but just.

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Volcatius, -i, M., a gentile name.
-E.g., L. Volcatius Tullus, cos.
B.C. 66.

volgaris (vul-), -e, adj., common, ordinary, commonplace. voluptās, -ātis, F., pleasure, devolgō (vul-), adv., generally, light, satisfaction, enjoyment. universally, openly, publicly. volūtō, 1. v. a. and n., roll, turn volgus (vul-), -i, N., the multi- over; consider, weigh, ponder. tude, public, masses, mob. -Fig., wallow, grovel. volitō, 1. v. n., flit about, hover volvo, -vi, -ūtus, -ere, a., turn, or hang about. turn around, roll, roll along. volnero (vul-), 1. v. a., wound, Fig., ponder, reflect upon. hurt, injure, pain. volnus (vul-), -eris, N., a wound. —Fig., hurt, misfortune. volō,. volui, velle, irr. v. a. and n., will, be willing, wish, desire, be disposed, intend, purpose. With quid sibi, mean, signify. -Esp., will have it that, pretend, assert. Volturcius, -1, M., the name of a voveō, võvi, võtus, -ēre, a. and n., vow, dedicate; make vows.

vomō, -ui, -itus, -ere, a., vomit, emit, discharge, breathe out. vorāgō, -inis, F., an abyss, gulf, whirlpool. Fig., devourer. vortō, see verto.

võsmet, emphatic form of vos. võtīvus, -a, -um, adj., promised by a vow, votive.

võtum, -i, N., a vow; a prayer.


volturius (vul-), -i, M., a vul- võx, vōcis, F., a voice, cry, call; ture. Fig., a plunderer.

voltus (vul-), -ūs, M., the countenance, features, expression, looks.

volubilis, -e, adj., turning, whirling. Fig., changeable, fickle. volucer, -cris, -cre, adj., flying, winged. Fig., fleet, swift. voluntārius, -a, -um, adj., voluntary. As subst., a volunteer. voluntās, -ātis, F., will, wish,

choice, desire, inclination; disposition, feeling, policy, views. - Esp., favor, good will, affection.

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words, talk.

vul-, see vol-.


X., sign for decem, ten.
Xenocratēs, -is, M., a disciple of


Zenō, -ōnis, M., a philosopher of

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