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A.V.C.) A.C.

646 108 Birth of Catilina (c. 5).

666

681

687

688

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88 Catilina a partizan of L. Sulla in the Civil War (c. 5).
73 Catilina tried for stuprum' with a Vestal (c. 15).
67 Catilina propraetor of the Provincia Africa.

66 Catilina returns from his Provincia about the middle of

summer and is prevented from being a candidate for the consulship by a resolution of the Senate.

Catilina about the close of the year forms his first conspiracy with P. Autronius and Cn. Piso (c. 18). 65 This conspiracy was broken up in February (c. 18). Cn. Piso quaestor pro praetore is made governor of Spain (c. 19).

Catilina is prosecuted for Repetundae by P. Clodius, and is acquitted. He is unable to be a candidate for the consulship. 64 Catilina forms another conspiracy about the 1st of June (c. 17).

Catilina is a candidate for the consulship for B.C. 63, and loses his election (c. 24).

63 Catilina at the close of the year is preparing for his revolu

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CATILINA.

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

(FROM KRITZ.)

tionary attempts (c. 24).

On the xii. Kal. Nov. (21 Oct.) by a Senatus consultum the
consular comitia which had been fixed for the xi. Kal.
Nov. (22 Oct.) are deferred to the v. Kal. Nov. (28 Oct.)
On the xi. Kal. Nov. (22 Oct.) the Senate empower the con-
suls to protect the State (c. 29).

On the vi. Kal. Nov. (27 Oct.) Manlius takes up arms in
Etruria (c. 30).

The consular comitia for B.C. 62 are held on the v. Kal. Nov.
(28 Oct.), and Catilina who is a candidate is rejected
(c. 26).

Catilina prepares for war with the aid of C. Manlius (c. 27).
The Senate raises troops (c. 30).

Alarm in Rome from the 28 Oct. to 9 Nov. (c. 31).
On the night which was between viii. and vii. Id. Nov.
(6 and 7 Nov.) the conspirators meet at M. Laeca's house
(c. 27).

On the same night a design is formed for assassinating Cicero on the following morning (c. 28).

On the night between vii. and vi Id. Nov. (7 and 8 Nov.) there is another meeting of the conspirators.

On the following day, vi. Id. Nov. (8 Nov.), Cicero delivered in the Senate his first oration against Catilina (c. 31).

On the night between the vi. and v. Id. Nov. (8 and 9 Nov.
Catilina left the city (c. 32).

On the following day, v. Id. Nov. (9 Nov.), Cicero delivered
before the people his second oration against Catilina.
Catilina after leaving the city writes letters on the road, in

which he attempts to conceal his intentions (c. 34).
Catilina and Manlius are declared enemies by a Senatus
consultum (c. 36).

Disturbances in various parts of Italy are checked by Q. Me-
tellus Celer and C. Murena (c. 42).

The chiefs of the conspiracy who are in Rome attempt to
gain over the ambassadors of the Allobroges (c. 40).
On the night between iv. and iii. Non. Dec. (2 and 3 Dec.)
the Allobroges are arrested with the letters of the conspi-
rators on them (c. 45).

On the iii. Non. Dec. (3 Dec.) the conspirators being con-
victed in the Senate are given into 'custodia libera' (c. 46).
On the same day in the evening Cicero delivered before the
people his third oration against Catilina (c. 48).

On iv. Non. Dec. (4 Dec.) the Senate meet to reward the
Allobroges (c. 50).

On the Non. Dec. (5 Dec.) the Senate deliberate on the pu-
nishment of the conspirators (c. 50-53).-Cicero delivered
before the Senate his fourth oration against Catilina.

On the same day the five conspirators who had been arrested

are strangled in the Tullianum (c. 55).

62 Catilina who had been in Etruria for about three months
with his troops is defeated near Pistoria by M. Petreius,
and Catilina is killed (c. 60).

A.V.C.A.C. 691 63

692

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C. SALLUSTI CRISPI
CATILINA.

1. OMNIS homines, qui sese student praestare ceteris animalibus, summa ope niti decet, ne vitam silentio transeant veluti pecora, quae natura prona atque ventri obedientia finxit. Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita est; animi imperio, corporis servitio magis utimur; alterum nobis cum dis, alterum cum belu's commune est. Quo mihi rectius videtur ingeni quam virium opibus gloriam quaerere, et, quoniam vita ipsa qua fruimur brevis est, memoriam nostri quam maxume longam efficere. Nam divitiarum et formae gloria fluxa atque fragilis [est], virtus clara aeternaque habetur. Sed diu magnum inter mortalis certamen fuit, vine corporis an virtute animi res militaris magis procederet. Nam et prius quam incipias, consulto, et, ubi consulueris, mature facto opus est. Ita utrumque per se indigens, alterum alterius auxilio eget.

2. Igitur initio reges, nam in terris nomen imperi id primum fuit, divorsi pars ingenium, alii corpus exercebant; etiamtum vita hominum sine cupiditate agitabatur, sua cuique satis placebant. Postea vero quam in Asia Cyrus, in Graecia Lacedaemonii et Athenienses coepere urbis atque nationes subigere, lubidinem dominandi caussam belli habere, maxumam gloriam in maxumo imperio putare, tum demum periculo atque negotiis compertum est in bello plurumum ingenium posse. Quod si regum atque imperatorum animi virtus in pace ita ut in bello valeret, aequabilius atque constantius sese res humanae haberent, neque aliud alio ferri neque mutari ac misceri omnia cerneres. Nam imperium facile hi artibus retinetur, quibus initio partum est. Verum ubi

pro labore desidia, pro continentia ct acquitate lubido atque superbia invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus iminutatur. Ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur. Quae homines arant, navigant, aedificant, virtuti omnia parent. Sed multi mortales dediti ventri atque somno, indocti incultique vitam sicuti peregrinantes transiere; quibus profecto contra naturam corpus voluptati, anima oneri fuit. Eorum ego vitam mortemque juxta aestumo, quoniam de utraque siletur. Verum enimvero is demum mihi vivere atque frui anima videtur, qui aliquo negotio intentus praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit. Sed in magna copia rerum aliud alii natura iter ostendit.

3. Pulchrum est bene facere rei publicae, ctiam bene dicere haud absurdum est; vel pace vel bello clarum fieri licet; et qui fecere, et qui facta aliorum scripsere, multi laudantur. Ac mihi quidem, tametsi haudquaquam par gloria sequitur scriptorem et actorem rerum, tamen in primis arduum videtur res gestas scribere; primum quod facta dictis exaequanda sunt; dehinc quia plerique, quae delicta reprehenderis, malevolentia et invidia dicta putant; ubi de magna virtute et gloria bonorum memores, quae sibi quisque facilia factu putat, aequo animo accipit, supra ea veluti ficta pro falsis ducit. Sed ego adulescentulus initio, sicuti plerique, studio ad rem publicam latus sum, ibique mihi multa advorsa fuere. Nam pro pudore, pro abstinentia, pro virtute, audacia, largitio, avaritia vigebant. Quae tametsi animus aspernabatur insolens malarum artium, tamen inter tanta vitia imbecilla aetas ambitione corrupta tenebatur; ac me, quum ab reliquis malis moribus dissentirem, nihilo minus honoris cupido eadem qua ceteros fama atque invidia vexabat.

4. Igitur ubi animus ex multis miseriis atque periculis requievit, et mihi reliquam aetatem a re publica procul habendam decrevi, non fuit consilium secordia atque desidia bonum otium conterere, neque vero agrum colendo aut venando servilibus officiis intentum aetatem agere; sed a quo incepto studioque me ambitio mala detinuerat, eodem regressus statui res gestas populi Ro

mani carptim, uti quaeque memoria digna videbantur, perscribere; eo magis quod mihi a spe, metu, partibus rei publicae animus liber erat. Igitur de Catilinae conjuratione quam verissume potero paucis absolvam; nam id facinus in primis ego memorabile existumo sceleris atque periculi novitate. De cujus hominis moribus pauca prius explananda sunt quam initium narrandi faciam.

5. Lucius Catilina, nobili genere natus, fuit magna vi et animi et corporis, sed ingenio malo pravoque. Huic ab adulescentia bella intestina, caedes, rapinae, discordia. civilis grata fuere, ibique juventutem suam exercuit. Corpus patiens inediae, algoris, vigiliae, supra quam cuiquam credibile. Animus audax, subdolus, varius, cujus rei lubet simulator ac dissimulator; alieni appetens, sui profusus, ardens in cupiditatibus; satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum. Vastus animus immoderata, incredibilia, nimis alta semper cupiebat. Hunc post dominationem Luci Sullae lubido maxuma invaserat rei publicae capiundae, neque id quibus modis assequeretur, dum sibi regnum pararet, quicquam pensi habebat. Agitabatur magis magisque in dies animus ferox inopia rei familiaris et conscientia scelerum, quae utraque his artibus auxerat, quas supra memoravi. Incitabant praeterea corrupti civitatis mores, quos pessuma ac divorsa inter se mala, luxuria atque avaritia, vexabant. Res ipsa hortari videtur, quoniam de moribus civitatis tempus admonuit, supra repetere ac paucis instituta majorum domi militiaeque, quo modo rem publicam habuerint quantamque reliquerint, ut paulatim immutata ex pulcherruma pessuma ac flagitiosissuma facta sit, dis

serere.

6. Urbem Romam, sicut ego accepi, condidere atque habuere initio Trojani, qui Aenea duce profugi sedibus incertis vagabantur, cumque his Aborigines, genus hominum agreste, sine legibus, sine imperio, liberum atque solutum. Hi postquam in una moenia convenere, dispari genere, dissimili lingua, alius alio more viventes, incredibile memoratu est quam facile coaluerint. Sed postquam res eorum civibus, moribus, agris aucta,

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